the nervous system reacts to stimuli ____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts ____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
quickly; quickly; specific
____ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology
this figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. what does "1" represent?
the pineal gland
this figure shoes the major organs of the endocrine system. what structure secretes growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)?
what makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
the hypophyseal portal system connects
the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus
____ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ____ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms
oxytocin (OT); antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
this figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone stimulates glucocorticoids secretion?
this figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone is NOT a tropin?
this hormone plays an important role in synchronizing function with the cycle of daylight and darkness
the ____ secretes hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells)
the ____ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness and quickness reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system
many hours after a meal, alpha (a) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete
glucagon, which raises blood glucose
T4 and T3 are ____ hormones that are mainly transported ____ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB)
this is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger
enzymes are activated of deactivated by the action of protein kinases
even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of
neither follicle simulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
the synergist effect
during the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. a characteristic of this stage is that
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
the initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ____
the alarm reactin; norepinephrine and epinephrine
growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ____ when it begins in adulthood
these statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except
both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin