An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
These Caribbean islands served as bases for Spanish invasion of America
Where did the Netherlands hold a colonial empire? Islands East of India and South of China. Source of valuable spices. European nations began exploring in order to find a new route to these Islands.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
(1494) ostensibly divided the New World (and, in later interpretations, the entire world) between Spain and Portugal. It resulted from a bull by (Spanish-born) Pope Alexander VI granting lands to Spain and established a line west of the Cape Verde islands between future Spanish possessions (west) and Portuguese possessions (east). The line passed through Brazil, allowing the Portuguese to establish a colony there while Spain received the rest of the Americas. Endless wrangling and repeated revisions ensued.
Joint Stock Co
people would pull their money together and sponsor a voyage to the new world expecting that the voyage would eventually pay them back by sending lumber, gold, and other raw materials back to Europe
The extreme northeastern sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk. (p. 551)
a Russian folk hero, who, even though he was ultimately killed by his chief rival, is known for pioneering the Russian push east into Siberia
French political faction with no strong religious ties that tried to manipulate political divisions in France for its own political gain.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
House of Commons
one of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office
chief minister. secretly protestant.used the opportunity to have Henry VIII work with parliament to secure the birth of the Anglican Church(Protestant)
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
seized throne from weak husband. Greatly influenced by Western European thinkers, considered freeing serfs, significantly expanded borders to the south and secured a warm-water port on the Black Sea
A peasant who claimed to be Peter III and led a peasant revolt against Catherine but it resulted in worse conditions for them than before
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
something (usually a supporting document) that is enclosed in an envelope with a covering letter
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
an ecomonic theory where colonies are created to benefit the "mother country" through trade of raw materials and consumption of the mother countrys finished products
privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them
Human-made waterways which were used to connect the storage basins to a network of ditches which brought the water to the fields.
organization in one location encouraged increase of production. Location in suburban areas provided cheap labor supply. Introduction of machines increased profit. , place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
carbon fuel produced by distillation of coal
sedimentary rock formed from decayed plant material; the world's most abundant fossil fuel
a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
English, wrote principia, proves inertia and writes laws of gravity
believed the church still had too much power and absolute monarchy=tyranny stripping people of virtue, integrity and happiness
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment; explained many aspects of society; compiled by Denis Diderot
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
the capital of the United States in the District of Columbia and a tourist mecca
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
very radical French revolutionary party responsible for Reign of Terror and execution of king
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Russian liberals who staged a revolt against Tsar Nicholas I on the first day of his reign in December 1825
meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. -- glossary.com
student societies dedicated to fostering the goal for free united Germany "Honor, Liberty, Fatherland"
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)