Ground Control shall ensure stripmarking is completed for instructions or ________ issued or received.
Ground Control must obtain approval from _________ before authorizing an aircraft or vehicle to cross or use any portion of an active runway.
Local Control shall verbally specify a runway to be crossed preceded by the word(s) "_________."
When is progressive route information required in taxi instructions?
If the pilot requests it
Departure information for departing aircraft includes braking action for the runway in use when __________.
braking action advisories are in effect
What is the phraseology used to issue the time a pilot can expect to start engines when gate hold procedures are in effect?
"EXPECT ENGINE START (time)."
Helicopter ground taxiing uses less fuel than hover-taxiing and _________.
minimizes air turbulence
Helicopter movement above the surface at slow speed, generally below 20 knots and 25 feet AGL, is called ________.
Avoid clearances that require small aircraft or helicopters to taxi in proximity to taxiing or _____ helicopters.
When an emergency occurs on the airport proper, ____________.
control other air and ground traffic to avoid conflicts in the area where the emergency is being handled
When you receive information that an emergency landing will be made with explosive cargo aboard, inform the pilot of the ___________.
safest or least congested airport areas
Who shall be notified of a departing aircraft that is being taxied to a non-active runway?
At Academy Tower, Ground Control shall pass requests to close VFR flight plans to ______ for relay to the FSS.
At Academy Tower, Ground Control receives the emergency checklist from __________.
At Academy Tower, an emergency with low hydraulic pressure is considered an Alert # ____.
A determination can be made as to whether an aircraft on the ground has an operable receiver, but NO transmitter, by asking the pilot to _________.
move the rudders
When you believe an aircraft is experiencing a communications failure, broadcast clearances through any available means of communication, including the voice feature of ___________.
Do NOT issue __________ instructions dependent upon the movement of arrival aircraft on the runway.
Do NOT use the word "___________" in conjunction with authorization for aircraft to taxi.
Issue the measured distance from the intersection to the runway end rounded down to the nearest _______ feet to any pilot who requests and to all military aircraft.
When a taxi clearance to a runway is issued to an aircraft, confirm that the aircraft has the correct ________.
What is the correct phraseology used to taxi an aircraft to a runway?
"TAXI TO RUNWAY TWO EIGHT LEFT via C."
A taxi clearance to an assigned takeoff runway authorizes the aircraft to "cross" all runways/taxiways that the taxi route intersects except ________.
the assigned takeoff runway
Request a read back of runway hold short instructions when __________.
it is not received from the pilot/vehicle operator
Avoid clearances that require heavy jet aircraft to _________.
use greater than normal taxiing power
Whenever an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS Outer Marker (OM) or the fix used in lieu of the OM, do NOT authorize vehicles/aircraft to operate in the ILS critical area when conditions are a reported ceiling ________ feet or visibility ________ miles.
less than 800; less than 2
If the ceiling is 500 feet and the visibility is 1 mile, an aircraft may enter the ILS critical area when ________.
an arriving aircraft is circling to land on another runway
What runway marking consists of four yellow lines, two solid and two dashed, extending across the width of the taxiway?
Runway hoding position markings
What is the correct phraseology used to request an aircraft to hold short of a runway?
C. "Cheyenne Three Four Tango, hold short of Runway Two Eight Right at Taxiway Charlie."
The LLWAS is designed to detect _______.
The LLWAS is comprised of a centerfield station and _______ other remote stations.
Wind gust data for the LLWAS is collected by ________.
the centerfield station
A 30-second average of the Airport Wind speed may be determined by observing Row(s) ______ of the tower cab LLWAS display.
An LLWAS flashing Data Fail light with a blank display indicates that __________.
no data has been received from the central computer
When a wind shear is detected by a remote station, the corresponding row on the tower LLWAS display panel flashes and _________.
the audible alarm sounds
What information is derived from the LLWAS TRACON display?
2-minute average from the centerfield indicator
If a centerfield station has failed, _________.
Rows 2 through 6 will flash all 9s
What is the phraseology a local controller uses to provide wind information if a wind shear is detected?
"WIND SHEAR ALERT AIRPORT WIND (direction) AT (velocity). (Location of sensor) BOUNDARY WIND (direction) AT (velocity)."
A microburst encounter poses a serious threat to aircraft during takeoff or landing, because it produces
both vertical and horizontal wind shear
Vortices are generated at the moment the aircraft __________.
leaves the ground
Separate a small aircraft departing on the same runway from an intersection behind a preceding departing large aircraft by ensuring that it does NOT start takeoff roll until _____ minutes after the large aircraft has ______________.
3; taken off or rotated
Separate IFR/VFR aircraft departing an intersecting runway behind a heavy jet/B757 departure by _____ minute(s) if projected flight paths will cross
Separate a small aircraft conducting a touch-and-go on the same runway as a preceding large aircraft departure by ______ minutes from the time the large aircraft _________.
3; rotates or takes off
Separate an aircraft departing behind a heavy jet/B757 departure on a parallel runway separated by 2,500 feet by _____ minute(s) if flight paths will cross.
An aircraft departing behind a heavy jet/B757 on the same runway or parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet requires ____ minute(s) of wake turbulence separation.
UAL 10, a DC10 (H), is departing from the approach end. N123JL, an LJ35 (S+), is waiting to depart from an intersection 600 feet down the runway. The soonest N123JL can depart is _____ minutes after UAL 10 ______.
AAL210, a B722 (L), departs Runway 28R from the approach end. N10FD, a SBR1 (S+),is waiting to depart Runway 28R at intersection "C." What is the required wake turbulence separation?
3 minutes from AAL210's rotation
N18NC, a FA10 (S+), departs Runway 28R from the approach end. N56CD, a BE58 (S), is waiting to depart Runway 28R at intersection "D." What is the required wake turbulence separation?
3 minutes from N18NC's rotation
UAL433, a DC10 (H), departs Runway28R on an Academy One departure. DAL201, a DC-9 (L), is waiting to depart Runway 28L on a runway heading departure. The runways are 2,500 feet apart. The soonest DAL201 can start takeoff roll is ___________.
2 minutes from UAL433's takeoff roll
UAL433, a DC10 (H), executes a missed approach on Runway 28R. N310MN, a C441 (S), is waiting to depart at the approach end. N310MN may start takeoff roll _________.
2 minutes after UAL433 crosses the landing threshold
N288DS, a P28A (S), is downwind for touch-and-gos on Runway 28L. AAL432, an MD80(L), is departing Runway 28L. N288DS may not ________ until ____ minutes after AAL432 rotates.
touch down; 3
AAL601, a B722 (L), executes a missed approach on Runway 28R. N1388V, a C441 (S), is waiting to depart at the approach end. N1388V may depart __________.
Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories and the position, altitude, and direction of flight of a heavy jet/B757 to __________.
VFR aircraft that are not being radar vectored, but that are behind heavy jets/B757s
When issuing wake turbulence advisories for a heavy jet/B757 to any aircraft landing behind the arriving or departing heavy jet/B757 that is on the same runway or parallel runway separated by less than 2,500 feet, the phraseology is ___________________.
"CAUTION WAKE TURBULENCE HEAVY D-C TEN, TWO MILE FINAL"
Preventive airport traffic control service is provided only to aircraft operating in accordance with a(n) ___________.
Letter of Agreement (LOA)
What is the correct phraseology for LC to authorize GC to cross an active runway?
"CROSS RUNWAY TWO EIGHT RIGHT AT ECHO."
With whom shall the local controller coordinate before using a runway NOT previously designated as the active runway?
Local Control shall ensure that the runway is free of all known vehicles, equipment, and personnel before a ____________.
departing aircraft starts takeoff roll
Do NOT request a departing military turboprop/turbojet aircraft (except transport and cargo types) to make radio or radar beacon changes before the aircraft reaches _______ feet above the surface.
Position determination of an aircraft on the airport may be determined visually by the controller, by pilots, or through the use of __________.
Do NOT authorize an aircraft to taxi into position and hold at an intersection ___________.
between sunset and sunrise
Approve a pilot's request to cross Class C or D surface areas at a speed that does NOT exceed ______ knots, unless a higher minimum speed is required.
Local controllers shall visually scan runways _________.
to the maximum extent possible
When radio communications CANNOT be employed, an aircraft in takeoff position on the runway receiving a flashing red light signal should ___________.
taxi clear of the runway
Issue the appropriate departure control frequency and beacon code before _________.
Instruct civil aircraft, military transport, and cargo types to contact departure control about ____ mile(s) beyond the runway end.
The position that is in direct communication with the aircraft and ensures separation of aircraft on the runways and in the designated airspace is _________ Control.
Local Control provides __________ , recognizing that they are a first-priority duty along with separation of aircraft, and remains constantly alert for unsafe proximity situations.
Local Control prioritizes actions according to their significance in the ____________.
overall traffic situation
Local Control ensures that performance of control instructions are in compliance with handbooks, facility procedures, and _________.
At Academy Tower, the Local Control position shall use automatic releases on __________.
Runways 10R/L and 28R/L only
At Academy Tower, Local Control shall forward to TRACON arrival times of all ______ aircraft.
At Academy Tower when a(n) ___________ , forward the information to Flight Data.
military or foreign registry aircraft departs
The minimum required information to obtain when handling an emergency is the aircraft identification and type, __________ , and pilot's desires.
nature of the emergency
When in communication with an aircraft in distress, you should transfer responsibility ___________.
only when you feel better handling will result
Recognized methods of orienting an aircraft include radar, DF, NAVAlDs, pilotage, and ___________.
sighting by other aircraft
Issue current touchdown RVR to departing aircraft for the runway in use when the prevailing visibility is ________ or less.
Issue both midpoint and rollout RVR when the value of either is less than ________ feet and the value of the touchdown RVR is greater than the midpoint or rollout.
At a tower that is NOT combined with a radar approach control, the Certified Tower Radar Display may be used for ___________.
providing suggested headings to VFR aircraft
Conditional clearances can be givng between ________ but not from controller to ________.
Authorization for aircraft to taxi on an active runway shall be provided via direct communications on the appropriate ________ frequency.
Local and Ground Control shall exchange ________ as necessary for the safe and efficient use of runways.
Ground Control shall notify Local Control when an aircraft is taxied to _________.
an intersection for departure
Local Control shall coordinate with Ground Control before using a(n) ________ not previously designated as active.
What conditions require issuance of official ceiling and visibility to VFR aircraft?
Weather below VFR conditions
When is taxi route information issued to a departing aircraft?
When may departure information contained in the current ATIS broadcast be omitted for departing aircraft?
If the pilot states the appropriate ATIS code
Departure delay information is issued to aircraft when delays exceed or are expected to exceed ________ minutes.
Issue departure information to departing aircraft by including the time ________.
The official ceiling and visibility is issued to departing IFR aircraft when the weather is ________.
below VFR conditions or the highest TAKEOFF minima
Departure information about runway, wind, and altimeter may be omitted if a pilot uses the phrase "________."
have the numbers
When an emergency exists on the airport surface, aircraft on the ground should be _________.
controlled so as not to cause a hindrance to airborne and surface rescue or relief operations
What is the minimum information required to begin assistance for an in-flight emergency?
1) Aircraft identification and type 2) Nature of the emergency 3) Pilot's desires
Besides aircraft identification and type, nature of emergency, and pilot's desires, what other info is required during an emergency?
1) fuel remaining (in time) 2)number of souls onboard
When may ELT's be tested?
Within the first 5 minutes of an hour
The only time an emergency aircraft should be required to make a frequency change is when _________.
there is a valid reason
When an ELT is received by or reported to a terminal facility, immediately notify the _________.
When it is determined that an emergency aircraft has explosive material aboard, who should be notified?
An intersection departure on Runway 10L from Taxiway F is initiated. How many feet of runway length are available? What distance would be issued to the pilot?
A C441 requests to depart on Runway 16 from Taxiway B. How many feet of runway length are available? What distance would be issued to the pilot?
A C172 requests to depart on Runway 28R from Intersection D. How many feet of runway length are available?
A BE35 requests to depart on Runway 10L from Intersection E. How many feet of runway length are available?
When the remaining distance is requested by the pilot, issue __________.
the distance rounded down to the nearest 50 ft
If Runways 28R/L are designated as active, Runway 16 may be assigned by Ground Control ONLY __________.
after coordination with Local Control
What position at Academy Tower has the responsibility of collecting data listed on the emergency checklist?
Who is responsible for ensuring that all emergency vehicles have radio capability on 121.9 MHz?
What alert indicates that an aircraft accident has occurred on or near the airport?
Intersection departures may be _________ by a controller, or _________ by a controller if requested by a pilot.
What type of instructions CANNOT be issued if they are dependent upon the movement of arriving or departing aircraft in proximity to a runway?
When authorizing an aircraft to taxi, use the prefixes "taxi," "hold," and "_______."
When a taxi clearance to a runway is issued to an aircraft, confirm that the aircraft has the correct ________.
Progressive ground movement instructions include ________.
step-by-step routing directions
What is the purpose of holding position markings?
to identify locations where an aircraft is supposed to stop when it has no clearance to proceed onto the runway or onto another taxiway
Aircraft/vehicle access to ILS/MLS critical areas must be controlled whenever conditions are less than a reported ceiling ________ feet and/or visibility less than ________ mile(s).
Air carriers conduct "coupled" or "________" operations to satisfy maintenance training or reliability program requirements.
A _________ is a change in wind speed and/or direction in a short distance, resulting in a tearing or shearing effect. It can exist in a horizontal or vertical direction and occasionally in both.
A _________ is a small downburst with outbursts of damaging winds extending 2.5 miles or less.
The occurrence of a column of air perpendicular to the ground with acceleration toward the ground defines a _______.
The typical LLWAS is comprised of a centerfield station and ________ other remote stations.
The LLWAS display panel located in the TRACON is normally used to report wind conditions ________.
within the airport area
Row 1 on an LLWAS displays ___________.
the 2-minute average of the Airport Wind direction and speed (Centerfield Row)
Row 2 on an LLWAS displays ___________.
the 30-second average of the Airport Wind direction and speed (Centerfield)
Rows 3-6 on an LLWAS displays ___________.
the 30-second average wind speed and direction of each remot station (Boundary)
If the centerfield station is out of service or has failed, Row 1 will flash all 9s, except the last digit of the wind _______ will flash a 1.
What will alert the controller of a wind shear?
The audible alarm will sound.
If no data has been received from the central computer for approximately ________ seconds, the Data Fail light will flash with a blank display.
When a low level wind shear is reported by pilots or detected on LLWAS, a statement shall be included on the ATIS for at least ________ minutes following the last report or indication of wind shear.
What is the phraseology used for a wind shear advisory?
"RUNWAY ONE SEVEN ARRIVAL WIND SHEAR ALERT, FOUR ZERO KNOT LOSS, THREE MILE FINAL."
If requested by the pilot or deemed appropriate by the controller, issue the displayed wind information ________.
oriented to the threshold or departure end of the runway
What is airport traffic control service based upon?
Observed or known traffic and airport conditions.
Who has primary responsibility for operations conducted on active runways?
When must vehicles, equipment, and personnel be clear of the runway in use for a departing aircraft?
Before the departing aircraft starts its takeoff roll.
When the runways are not visible from the tower and before releasing an aircraft to the ground controller, ________.
advise the ground controller of the aircraft's location
A flashing green light to an aircraft in the air means ________.
to return for landing
A steady red light to an aircraft on the ground means to ________.
What is the meaning of an alternating red and green light to any aircraft or vehicle?
Use extreme caution
A steady green light to an aircraft on the ground means __________.
cleared for takeoff
A steady green light to an aircraft in the air means __________.
cleared to land
A flashing green light to an aircraft on the ground means __________.
cleared for taxi
A flashing red light to an aircraft on the ground means __________.
taxi clear of the runway
A flashing white light to an aircraft on the ground means __________.
return to starting point
A steady red light to an aircraft in the air means __________.
give way to other aircraft and continue to circle
A flashing red light to an aircraft in the air means __________.
airport unsafe, do not land
Provided that further communication with the controller is not required, when is a departing IFR civil aircraft instructed to contact departure control?
When the aircraft is about a 1/2 mile beyond the runway end.
The Local Control position is in direct communication with the aircraft and ensures separation of aircraft ________.
in the designated airspace
Local Control issues appropriate control instructions and/or restrictions, including speed control, ________, and visual separation.
Local Control observes present traffic and considers ________ to predict if an overload may occur.
Local Control sets radar displays to the ___________ area of jurisdiction.
Issue the current touchdown Runway Visual Range (RVR) for the runways in use when the ______________.
prevailing visibility is 1 mile or less (reguardless of RVR value) OR RVR indicates a value of 6,000 ft or less (regardless of the prevailing visibility)
When the RVR indicates a reportable value of 6,000 feet or less, issue the current _________ RVR for the runway in use to departing aircraft.
Base your decision about the type of assistance needed to handle an emergency intelligently on information and requests received from the _________.
When should you transfer responsibility for an aircraft in distress?
Only when you feel better handling will result
What action is necessary when an emergency occurs on the airport proper?
Control other air and ground traffic to avoid conflicts in the area where the emergency is being handled
Local Control shall coordinate with departure control for ________.
Special VFR (SVFR) and VFR-on-top (OTP) operations
Local Control shall use ________ to maintain the arrival/departure sequence.
a writing pad and/or strips
_________ are circular patterns of air created by the movement of an airfoil through the air when generating lift.
The greatest vortex strength is generated when the aircraft is _____________.
heavy, clean, and slow
Wake turbulence is a phenomena resulting from ___________.
the passage of an aircraft through the atmosphere.
The strength of a vortex is governed by what 3 factors?
Speed, weight, and shape of the wing.