AP Bio, ch. 24

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Plant tissues/organs

epidermal

_____ tissue forms the outer protective covering of a plant.

ground

_____ tissue fills the interior of a plant.

vascular

_____ tissue transports water and nutrients in a plant and provides support.

epidermis

The entire body of both non-woody (herbaceous) and young woody plants is covered by a layer of _____.

cuticle

The walls of epidermal cells that are exposed to the air are covered with a waxy _____ to minimize water loss.

root hairs

In roots, certain epidermal cells have long, slender projections called _____ _____.

trichomes

On stems, leaves, and reproductive organs, epidermal cells produce hairs called _____.

chloroplasts, stomata

Guard cells, which are epidermal cells with _____, surround microscopic pores called _____.

periderm

In older woody plants, the epidermis of the stem is replaced by _____.

cork

The majority component of periderm is boxlike _____ cells.

lenticles

Ridges and cracks that appear on the stem surface because of the overproduction of cork by cork cambium

parenchyma

_____ cells are the most abundant and correspond best to the typical plant cell. They are the least specialized of the cell types and are found in all organs of a plant.

collenchyma

_____ cells have thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells.

sclerenchyma

_____ cells have very thick walls and are nonliving--their only function is to give strong support.

lignin

Sclerenchyma cells have thick secondary cell walls impregnated with _____, which is a highly resistant organic substance that makes the walls tough and hard.

root system

simply consists of the roots

shoot system

consists of the stem, the branches, and the leaves

organs

structures that contain different tissues and perform one or more specific functions that allow them to live and grow

vegetative organs

The roots, stems, and leaves are the _____ _____.

vegetative organs

These organs are concerned with growth and nutrition...not reproduction

reproduction

Flowers, seeds, and fruits are structures involved in _____.

perennial

_____ plants have vegetative structures that live year after year

axillary

_____ buds can develop into branches of stems or flowers, the reproductive structures of a plant.

vascular

The root system is connected to the shoot system by _____ tissue (brown) that extends from the roots to the leaves.

stem

A _____, the main axis of a plant, has a terminal bud that allows the _____ to elongate and produce new leaves.

node

A _____ occurs where leaves are attached to the stem.

internode

The region between nodes is called an _____.

axillary

An _____ bud, located at anode in the upper angle between the leaf and the stem can produce new branches of the stem (or flowers).

leaves

_____ are the major part of a plant that carries on photosynthesis, a process that requires water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight.

evergreens, deciduous

Plants that bear leaves the entire year are called _____ and those that lose their leaves every year are called _____.

blade

The wide portion of a foliage leaf is called the _____.

petiole

The _____ is a stalk that attaches the blade to the stem.

cotyledons

Flowering plants are divided into two groups, depending on the number of _____, or seed leaves, in the embryonic plant.

star

In the eudicot root, the xylem, which transports water and minerals, is _____-shaped; and the phloem, which transports organic nutrients, is located between the points of the _____.

vascular

Leaf veins are _____ bundles within a leaf.

parallel, netted

Monocots exhibit _____ venation, and eudicots exhibit _____ venation, which may be either pinnate or palmate.

eudicots, monocots

In _____, there are two cotyledons in the seed, while in _____, there is one.

eudicots, monocots

In _____, the root phloem is between arms of xylem, while in _____, the root xylem and phloem are in a ring.

monocots, eudicots

In _____, the vascular bundles are scattered in the stem, while in _____, the vascular bundles are in a distinct ring.

monocots, eudicots

In _____, the leaf veins form a parallel pattern, while in _____, the leaf veins form a net pattern.

eudicots, monocots

In _____, the flower parts are in fours or fives and their multiples, while in _____, the flower parts are in threes and multiples of three.

meristems

_____ are located at or near the tips of stems and roots, where they increase the length of these structures-> primary growth

cuticle

This also protects against bacteria and other organisms that might cause disease.

hairs

_____ increase the surface area of the root for absorption of water and minerals; they also help anchor the plant firmly in place.

trichomes

_____ have two important functions: to protect the plant from too much sun and to conserve moisture, sometimes they even prevent form herbivores by producing a toxic substance.

guard

In leaves, the lower epidermis of eudicots and both surfaces of monocots contain specialized cells called _____ cells.

gas, water

When the stomata are open, _____ exchange and _____ loss occur.

cambium

New cork cells are made by a meristem called cork _____.

lenticels

_____ in cork are important in gas exchange.

absorb

Root epidermis has root hairs to _____ water.

collenchyma

_____ cells often form bundles just beneath the epidermis and give flexible support to immature regions of a plant body.

xylem

_____ transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves

phloem

_____ transports sucrose and other organic compounds, including hormones, usually from the leaves to the roots.

complex

Both xylem and phloem are considered _____ tissues because they are composed of two or more kinds of cells.

xylem, vessel elements, tracheids, pits

_____ contains two types of conducting cells: tracheids and vessel elements, which are modified sclerenchyma cells. Both types of conducting cells are hollow and nonliving, but the _____ are larger, may have perforation plates in their end walls, and are arranged to form a continuous vessel for water and mineral transport. The elongated _____, with tapered ends, form a less obvious means of transport, but water can move across the end walls and side walls because there are _____, or depressions, where the secondary wall does not form.

phloem

The conducting cells of _____ are specialized parenchyma cells called sieve-tube members arranged to form a continuous sieve tube.

companion

Each sieve-tube member has a ____ cell, which does not have a nucleus. The _____ cell may control and maintain the life of both cells. _____ cells are also believed to be involved in the transport function of phloem.

cylinder, bundles, veins

In the roots, vascular tissue is located in the vascular _____; in the stem, it forms vascular _____; and in the leaves, it is found in leaf _____.

terminal

The _____ bud contains the shoot tip protected by bud scales, which are modified leaves.

apical meristem

The root _____ _____ is in the region protected by the root cap.

three

The root tip is divided into _____ zones.

eudicot

The vascular cylinder of a _____ root contains the vascular tissue.

xylem

Because of the Casparian strip, water and minerals must pass through the cytoplasm of endodermal cells in order to enter the _____.

endodermis

The _____ is a single layer of rectangular cells that forms a boundary between the cortex and the inner vascular cylinder.

casparian

The _____ strip prevents the passage of water and mineral ions between adjacent cell walls.

pericycle

The _____, the first layer of cells within the vascular cylinder, has retained its capacity to divide and can start the development of branch, or lateral, roots.

single, thin, hairs

The epidermis, which forms the outer layer of the root, consists of only a _____ layer of cells. The majority of epidermal cells are _____-walled and rectangular, but in the zone of maturation, many epidermal cells have root _____.

cortex

Moving inward, next to the epidermis, large, thin-walled parenchyma cells make up the _____ of the root.

pith

The ground tissue of a monocot root's _____, which is centrally located, is surrounded by a vascular ring composed of alternating xylem and phloem bundles.

monocot

_____ roots also have pericycle, endodermis cortex, and epidermis.

apical meristem

The shoot _____ _____ is protected within the terminal bud, where leaf primordial (immature leaves) envelop it.

primary xylem

The first xylem cells produced

primary phloem

The first phloem cells produced

primary

The shoot apical meristem produces _____ meristems.

epidermis, pith, cortex, vascular

Protoderm gives rise to _____; ground meristem gives rise to _____ and _____; and procambium gives rise to _____ tissue, including primary xylem, primary phloem, and vascular cambium.

herbaceous

Mature nonwoody stems, called _____ stems, exhibit only primary growth.

primary, secondary

_____ tissues are those new tissues formed each year from primary meristems right behind the shoot apical meristem, while _____ tissues develop during the first and subsequent years of growth from lateral meristems: vascular cambium and cork cambium.

periderm, phloem

the bark of a tree contains _____ (cork and cork cambium), and _____.

phloem

Although secondary _____ is produced each year by vascular cambium, _____ does not build up from season to season.

phloem

If the bark of a tree is removed, _____ cannot transport nutrients.

xylem

The buildup of secondary _____ in a woody stem results in annual rings, which tell the age of the stem.

mesophyll

The body of a leaf is composed of _____ tissue.

palisade, spongy

Most eudicot leaves have two distinct regions: _____ mesophyll, containing elongated cells, and _____ mesophyll, containing irregular cells bounded by air spaces.

mesophyll

Photosynthesis takes place in the _____ tissue of leaves.

phloem

Sugar exits leaf through the _____.

xylem

Water and minerals enter leaf through _____.

stomata

Gases such as O2, and water exit leaf through the _____.

stomata

CO2 enters leaf through the _____.

casparian strip

This important waterproof layer is found in roots and forces water to go through the endodermal cells (and not around them) before passing through to the vascular cylinder.

secondary

Wood is a _____ xylem which builds up each year; the vascular cambium is dormant during the winter.

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