An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. ex: language acquisition
period of development that begins with fertilization, or conception, and ends with birth
chemicals or other factors that specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development. ex: illegal drugs
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by heavy consumption of alcohol by a child's mother.
syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation
only 1 X, a girl who is much shorter, webbed, sexually undeveloped.
an extra copy of Chromosome 21. ex: YHSSE
humans have 46 chromosomes, composed of DNA. ex: Double Helix
an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. ex: Diving Babies
reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek. ex: Video
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. ex: determining learning
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, etc) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics. ex: female hips, male voice quality
the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends. ex: Hot flashes
describes Piaget's stage in which the child explores the world through interaction of his mouth and hands with the environment. ex: babies putting things in their mouth
From age 2 to age 6; characterized by increasing use of symbols and prelogical thought processes. ex: conservation
age 7 to adolescence; characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations.
Adolescence through adulthood; chracterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations. Not reached by all. ex: find X
an organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new information about the world. ex: dog/cats
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing schema. ex: dog/cat again
the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality. ex: nurses
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. ex: truck experiment
the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view. ex: skittles tube
Kohlberg's Moral Theory
six identifiable developmental stages through which the developmental mind passes through. not all people reach all stages.
things keep the same mass and volume regardless of changes in container. ex: video
Kohlberg's stage of moral development in which rewards and punishments dominate moral thinking. ex: he will get in trouble
morality determined by approval seeking and law and order. Right and wrong is determined by society's rules. ex: he is breaking the law
Abstract ethical principles that emphasize equality and justice. Ex: he has the right to it
strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules. ex: goes crazy in college
A parenting style based on recognized authority or knowledge and characterized by mutual respect. ex: TDubbs' father
the parent makes few demands on the child. ex: be their child's best friend
parents are neither restrictive and controlling nor supportive and responsive. ex: gold card girl
Baumrind's Parenting Style
four-corners spectrum of parenting. ex: chart