the master molecule. All living things contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) It is the information on the DNA that determines what an organism will look like.
discovered the secret of DNA structure in the 1950s with Francis Crick by using Rosalind Franklin's pictures of DNA
discovered the secret of DNA structure in the 1950s with James Watson using Rosalind Franklin's pictures of DNA
had pictures of DNA. Francis Crick and James Watson used the pictures
Watson-Crick DNA model
Double helix (twisted ladder)
building block of DNA 4 types, each with a different base
(ribonucleic acid) Is single stranded. Only one side of the ladder. Nucleotide T (thymine) is replaced by a U (uracil). Two types.
carries DNA message to ribosomes
carries amino acids to ribsomes
building blocks of proteins
each group of three bases codes for one amino acid. The order of the DNA BASES determines the order of the amino acids which decides the type of protein
a change in the order of bases in an organism's DNA. Usually harmful or harmless, but sometimes helpful. Several types(deletion,insertion,substitution)
bases are left out
extra base are put in
one base replaces another
anything that can cause a mutation ex. cigarette smoke, absestos
caused by mistakes in the genes. Most are recessive
most common genetic disease of caucasians. Causes body fluids to be thick, victims have respiratory and digestive problems. Most die in their twenties.
Sickle cell anemia
most common in African Americans. Substitution of ONE base causes their red blood cells to be bent. Victims don't get enough oxygen to tissues.
caused by defect on X chromosome (sex linked) Victim has trouble forming blood clots. May bleed to death from a small wound
caused when a person gets an extra 21st chromosome. Causes mental retardation and other physical problems.
gives advice to couples who are worried about passing genetic disease to their children
used to follow a trait through several generations of family
have the gene but don't show the trait
the ability to change an organism's genes and therefore it's characteristics
technique used to help identify an organism by it's genes
Human genome project
research program that began in 1990 whose goal was to identify all the genes on all 46 human chromosomes. Completed in 2003