The reactions of cellular respiration can be broken down into four stages:
glycolysis, acetyl coA formation, the citric acid (krebs) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
what are the net inputs of glycolysis?
NAD, ADP, and glucose
what are the net outputs of glycolysis?
NADH, ATP, and pyruvate
what are the net inputs of acetyl coA formation?
Pyruvate, NAD, and coenzyme A
what are the net outputs of acetyl coA formation?
acetyl coA, NADH, and CO2
what are the net inputs of the citric acid cycle?
acetyl coA, NAD, and ADP
what are the outputs of the citric acid cycle?
ATP, CO2, coenzyme A, and NADH
what are the net inputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
ADP, NADH, and O2
what are the net outputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
ATP, water, and NAD
glycolysis occurs in the ___________ of the cell.
acetyl coA formation occurs in the _______ of the cell.
the citric acid cycle occurs in the ______ of the cell.
oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the _______ of the cell.
inner mitochondrial membrane
In cellular respiration, a series of molecules forming an electron transport chain alternately accepts and then donates electrons. What is the advantage of such an electron transport chain?
The advantage of an electron transport chain is that a small amount of energy is released with the transfer of an electron between each pair of intermediates
How will a healthy individual's ATP production change during an eight-hour fast?
The individual's ATP production will not change significantly
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a ________ for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three phosphate groups.
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
true or false? NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
electron transport and chemiosmosis
True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
_________ phosphorylates ADP.
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
_________ represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.
A molecule that is phosphorylated...
has an increased chemical potential energy; it is primed to do cellular work.
Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
which experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?
decreasing extracellular pH
The contents of a red blood cell are ________ to distilled water.
Which factors affect the rate of osmotic movement of water?
The rate of osmosis increases with increasing differences in solute concentrations between two solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
What happens when two solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane reach osmotic equilibrium?
Water molecules move between the two solutions, but there is no net movement of water across the membrane.
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules?
Enzymes work by _____.
An enzyme is a(n) _____.
What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____.
What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?
The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction.
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.
What type of reaction requires a net input of energy from its surroundings?
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
What is energy coupling?
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction