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genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

phenotype

what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype

dominant

the form of a trait that appears to dominate or mask another form of the same trait

recessive

The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.

heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait

homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait

probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

test cross

the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

Punnett Square

diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

Law of Segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair

Law of Independent Assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

Alleles

different forms of a gene

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

monohybrid cross

a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

true breeding

displaying only one form of a particular trait in offspring

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