West Hills High School DNA & Genetics

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Mrs. McDowell genetics DNA West Hills High School biology

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

a molecule that holds the instructions for specific traits

the "molecule of life"

gene

small section of DNA

a "recipe" for a single trait

phenotype

physical appearance

example: blue eyes

sex chromosomes

chromosome pair #23

determines gender

XX = female, XY = male

heterozygous

Qq, Rr, Aa

Gregor Mendel

"father of genetics"

studied heredity of peas

autosome

chromosome pairs #1-#22

nucleus

part of the cell that contains the DNA

homozygous recessive

qq, rr, aa

genotype

"type of genes"

examples: AA, Aa, aa

dominant trait

trait that is always expressed when present

can "hide" a recessive allele

recessive trait

trait that can be "hidden" or "masked" in a carrier by a dominant allele

trait

a characteristic, such as a physical feature, that is genetically determined

chromosome

DNA is "packaged" into these X shaped structures

humans have 46 (23 from mom, 23 from dad)

genetics

the field of biology that studies heredity

heredity

passing on of physical traits from parent to offspring

genetic variation

genetic differences in a population
(both among / within a species and between different species)

homozygous dominant

QQ, RR, AA

allele

alternate form of a gene

example: allele T = tall & allele t = short

punnett square

a type of grid used to show alleles of each parent and the possible genotypes & phenotypes of their offspring

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