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Aeneas

wrote by Virgil, trojan prince who flees after the war with father and son, ends up in Italy where he marries a local princess founded Rome

Republic

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Legions

breakup of ancient Roman soldiers, 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback

Tiber River

a river flowing southward from north-central Italy across the Latium plain, and into the Tyrrhenian Sea

Sicily

the Mediterranean's largest island, colonized from the eighth century BC by Greeks and Carthaginians who frequently warred with each other or the island's native people.

Apennines

a mountain range extending the length of the Italian peninsula

Latium

an ancient region of west central Italy (southeast of Rome) on the Tyrrhenian Sea

Latins

An ancient people living in the region of Latium, Italy, who believed that they descended from Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas

Etruria

an ancient country in central Italy

Tarquins

What is the family held the early generations of Romain Rule, they improved Rome by creating a Forum, draining the seats?

Gladius

A short thrusting sword used in battle

Pilum

javelin used by Roman soldiers

Patricians

the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners

Plebeians

lower class, usually small farmers

Consuls

Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies

Praetors

elected Roman officials who helped the consuls

Cincinnatus

Roman statesman regarded as a model of simple virtue

Carthage

City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)

First Punic War

264 B.C. - 241 B.C., Rome and Carthage fought over island of Sicily, was a naval war, Rome was losing because they did not have a good navy, Romans figured out how to board the Carthage ships and fight them there, Romans gained control of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia (Islands)

Second Punic War

218 B.C. - 202 B.C., Hannibal decides to attack Rome, Sneaks through Gaul with 60,000 troops and 60 Elephants, Wreaks havoc in Rome for 15 years, Roman general named Scipio attacked Carthage making Hannibal come back to Carthage

Hannibal

Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.

Battle of Cannae

Worst Roman defeat in Punic wars-- 2nd Punic War; 216; Hannibal kills them all; As a result, Rome loses lotsa allies and NOBODY wants to fight Hannibal for 10 years

Battle of Zama

the final decisive battle of II Punic War. Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated hannibal. made inside of the line weak while calvary flanks were strong and surrounded the Carthaginian army

Dictator

a speaker who dictates to a secretary or a recording machine

Veto

the power or right to prohibit or reject a proposed or intended act (especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature)

12 Tables

12 laws; the earliest Roman code of laws

Scipio

Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)

Mare Nostrum

(our sea) the Mediterranean to the ancient Romans

Tiberius and Gaius

These brothers thought that many of Rome's problems were caused by the loss of small farms. They asked the Senate to take back public land from the rich and divide it among landless Romans.

Julius Ceasar

nephew of Marius who became a popular generaland was a powerful public speaker who spent a lot of money to win support; became Roman dictator for life

Octavian (Agustus)

The Roman ruler who began the "Pax Romana".

Antony

friend of Caesar. Antony claims allegiance to Brutus and the conspirators after Caesar's death in order to save his own life

Battle of Actium

battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.

Cicero

called on upperclass Romans to work together to make Rome a better place and wanted the Romans to give more support to the Senate and to restore checks and balances on government

Latifundia

large landed estates

Triumvirate

a group of three men responsible for public administration or civil authority

Claudius

an intelligent and scholarly man who conquered Britain. It is believed that his wife, Agrippina, poisoned him with tainted mushrooms

Nero

Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)

Hadrian

The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.

Rhine River

a major European river carrying more traffic than any other river in the world

Danube River

River in Europe that begins in Germany and flows into the Black Sea

Puteoli

One of the largest port cities in Italy on the Bay of Naples

Ostia

small pores in a sponge's body where water enters through

Currency

Coins and paper bills used as money

Aqueduct

n. A water-conduit, particularly one for supplying a community from a distance.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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