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20th Century and Beyond

The Rite of Spring

Igor Stravinski

Appalachian Spring

Aaron Copland

A Survivor from Warsaw

Arnold Schoenberg

Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun"

Claude Debussy

West Side Story

Leonard Bernstein

Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut

Charles Ives

Concerto Grosso 1985

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich

Afro-American Symphony

William Grant Still

Pierrot Lunaire

Arnold Schoenberg

Wozzeck

Alban Berg

Concerto for Orchestra

Bela Bartok

Rhapsody in Blue

George Gershwin

Polychord

Placing one traditional chord against another at the same time, a technique of twentieth-century music

Atonality

The complete rejection of a tonal center, or treating each of the twelve tones as of equal importance

Chorus

The main section of a musical comedy song

Polytonality

The technique of using two or more tonal centers at the same time

Ostinato

a motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a section

Expressionism

artistic movement, centered in Germany and Austria from 1905 to 1925, that stressed intense, subjective emotion

Impressionism

artistic movement, centered in France in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that stressed atmosphere, fluidity, and color

Minimalism

music characterized by its steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic fragements

Neoclassicism

artistic movement from about 1920 to 1950 that is marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity

Primitivism

deliberate evocation of unsophisticated power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds

Serialism

use of the technique of the twelve-tone system to organize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color

bebop

Style that evolved in the early 1940's, characterized by complex rhythmic patterns, asymmetrical melodic phrases, solo improvisation, and irregular accents

blues

form of vocal music usually characterized by a 12-bar chord progression over a steady 4/4 beat

cool jazz

style that emerged in the early 1950s that was related to bop but calmer and more relaxed in character

country and western

folklike, guitar-based style associated with rural white Americans

free jazz

style that emerged in the early 1960s that was not based on regular forms or established chord patterns

fusion

combination of jazz improvisation with rock rhythms and tone colors

motown

blend of rhythm and blues with popular music

New Orleans Style

style developed in the early 1900s, characterized by collective improvisation of solo performers over a clearly marked beat

Ragtime

piano style generally in duple meter, performed at a moderate mark tempo, popular from the 1890s to about 1915

rhythm and blues

dance music of African Americans that fused blues, jazz, and gospel styles

rock

vocal music with a hard, driving beat, often featuring electric guitar accompaniment and heavily amplified sound

soul

emphasis on emotionality, gospel roots, and its relationship to the black community

swing

style popular from 1935 to 1945, characterized by arrangements for about fifteen musicians

subdominant

the chord progression usually used in the blues involves only three basic chords; tonic, dominant, ________

Riffs

Frequently repeated short melodic phrases commonly used in swing

Bebop

Charlie "Bird" Parker,Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk

Blues

Bessie Smith, W.C. Handy

Cool Jazz

Miles Davis, Lester Young

Disco

Donna Summer

Folk Rock

Bob Dylan

Free Jazz

Ornette Coleman

Motown

Diana Ross and the Supremes, Stevie Wonder

New Orleans Style

Louis Armstrong, Joseph "King" Oliver

Ragtime

Scott Joplin

Rap

Ice Cube,

Rhythm and Blues

Chuck Berry

1950s rock

Elvis Presley

Soul

Ray Charles,Arethra Franklin

Swing

Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Ella Fitzgerald, Glenn Miller

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