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Principled leadership

personality

is the unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals

ectraversion

is a perosnality trait associated with being sociable, talkative, assertive, and adventurous

agreeablesness

is a personality trait associated with being good natured, cooperative, trustful, and not jealous

conscientiousness

is a personality trait associated with being achievement orientied, reponsible, persvering, and dependable

openness to experience

is a personality trait associated with being intellectual, original, imaginative, and cultured.

emotional

is a personality trait associated with being calm, placid, posised, and not neurotic

Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI)

is a personality inventory based on Carl Jung's work on psychological types

Theory X

states that managers assume people are inherently lazy, dislike work, will avoid working hard unless forced to do so, and prefer to be directed rather than accepting responsibility

theory Y

states that managers assume people are inherently motivated to work and will feel unfulfilled if they do not have the opportunity to work and make a contribution to society

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

is the theory that people are motivatied to satisfy five need levels: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization

ERG theory

describes three universal categories of needs: existence, relatedness, and growth

Frustration-regression principle

suggests that people who are unable to satisfy higher-order needs at a basic level will compensate by focusing on oversatisfying lower-order needs

Hygiene factors

refer to the presence or absence of sources of job dissatisfaction

Motivator factors

refer to the presence or absence of sources of jov satisfaction

Job characteristics model

specifies how to increase the motivational potential of a job by improving the meaningfulnesss, autonomy, and feedback associated with the job

McClelland's acquired needs theory

states that certain types of needs or desires are acquired during an individual's lifetime

process theories of motivation

describe how people can be motivated

self-efficacy

refers to a person's belief that he or she will be able to complete a task successfully

self-fulfilling prophecy effect

is the idea that subordinates often live up (or down) ro the expectations of their managers

expectancy theory

states that motivation depends on an individual's learned expectations about his or her ability to perform certain tasks and receive desired rewards

expectancy

refers to the probability perceived by an individual that exerting a given amout of effort will lead to a certain level of performace

instrumentality

refers to the perceived probability that successfully performing at a certain level will result in attaining a specific outcome

valence

is the value an individual attaches to an outcome

intrinsic motivation

is a cource of motivation that comes from doing the activity or work itself

extrinsic motivation

is a source of motivation that comes from factors outside the task itself

reinforcement

is a response or consequence liked to a behavior

operant conditioning

is the use of reinforcement principles to systematically reinforce desirable work behavior and discourage undesirable work behavior; also called behavior modification

positive reinforcement

is the administration of a pleasant and rewaarding consequence following a desired behavior

punishment

decreases the frequency of or eliminates an undesirable behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on that behavior's occurrence.

negative reinforcement

is the removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior; also called avoidance learning

extinction

is the absence of any reinforcement-- either positive or negative--- following teh occurrence of a behavior

wquity theory

is based on the logic of social comparisons and assumes that people are motivated to seek and preserve social equity in teh rewards they expect for performace

organizational commitment

is a motivational force that binds a person to a particular organization

legitimate power

is th capacity that someone has, owing to his or her position in an organization's hierarchy, to influence other people

reward power

is the ability to give or withhold positive benefits or rewards

coercive power

is the power that rests on a person's ability to motivate others' behavior through threat of punishment

expert power

is based on the special knowledge, skills, and expertise that someone possesses.

referent power

is the ability to motivate through identification with or association with others

group efficacy

is the collective belief about the group's performance capability

organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)

is a behavior that goes above and beyond normal role expectations to help others or benefit the organization

Balanced Scorecard

is a management tool used to balance the use of financial goals with the use of other valuable goals that are important to overall organizational well-being

Distributive justice

is concerned with comparing one's inputs and outcomes to others' inputs and outcomes

procedural justice

is concerned with the extent to which policies and rules are participatively developed, transparent, and fairly administered.

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