Muscles and Internal Organs

52 terms by fallingshadow1 

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Origin

The end of muscle that's attached to bone that doesn't move during contraction

Insertion

The end of the muscle that's attached to the bone that moves during contraction

Extensors

Increase the angle of a joint

Flexors

Decrease the angle of a joint

Abductors

Move an appendage away from the midline of the body

Adductors

Move an appendage toward the midline of the body

Retractors

Move an appendage backward

Protractors

Move an appendage forward

Supinators

Rotate the palm or bottom of foot upward

Pronators

Rotate the palm or bottom of foot downward

Clavotrapezius

The muscle in the neck nearest to the head. Wraps around the front of the neck, associated, Large muscle, extending from neck to shoulder. Lies just anterior to acromiotrapezius

Acromiotrapezius

Inserts at the scapula; originates at the cervical vertebrae. Thin, flat muscle extending from the middle of the back to the shoulder. Middle of trapezius muscles. Moves the scapula dorsally

Spinotrapezius

Inserts on the spine of the scapula; originates at the thoracic vertebrae. Located posterior to acromiotrapezius, and partially covered by it. Moves the scapula upward and backward

Spinodeltoideus

Muscle wrapped around shoulder near the top, helps rotation of scapula

Biceps brachii

Inserts on the radius; originates on the scapula. Flexes the lower arm

Triceps brachii

Inserts on the elbow (olecranon); originates from the scapula and the humerus. Extends the lower arm

Latissimus dorsi

Large sheet of muscle in the back. Inserts on the medial part of the humerus; originates along the middorsal line (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae). Moves arms downward

Tensor fasciae latae

abducts thigh; medially rotates thigh

Gluteus maximus

Inserts on the femur; originates from the coxal bone. Supports the pelvis and trunk on the femur

Biceps femoris

Inserts at the distal portion of the femur and proximal portion of the tibia. Part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally

External oblique

Inserts at the linea alba and pelvis; originates at the lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs. Compresses abdomen

Gastrocnemius

The calf muscle. Inserts at the heel (calcaneus) by means of the Achilles tendon; originates at the distal end of the femur. Extends the foot

Semitendinosus

Extends and adducts thigh, flexes knee joint

Pectoralis major

Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction

Pectoralis minor

Beneath major pectoralis, triangular upper chest edge

Rectus abdominis

Depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen

Linea alba

The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline

Gracilis

Adducts femur/thigh

Cutaneous trunci

Inserts at the skin; originates under the upper front leg. Moves the skin

Submaxillary glands

Large, roughly oval and elongate part of salivary glands

Sublingual glands

Touch the submaxillary glands on their anterolateral surface

Parotid glands

Extends toward and behind the ear; beneath the ear and between the jaw and points of the shoulders

Thyroid gland

Gray or brown swelling on either side of the trachea

Larynx

Rigid, cartilaginous chamber containing the vocal cords

Atria

Two dark-colored chambers at the top of the heart that receive blood from veins

Ventricles

Light brown muscular area below the atria, which pump blood

Pericardium

Thin membrane around the heart

Thymus gland

Gland that lies directly over the upper part of the heart and functions in the developing immune system and is larger in young rats than old rats

Bronchial tubes

Tubes branching from the trachea where air enters the lungs.

Alveoli

Thin-walled air sacs where gas exchange occurs

Coelom

The body cavity where the internal organs are suspended

Viscera

Internal organs

Peritoneum

Membranous tissue that covers the viscera and the abdominal tissue

Parietal peritoneum

Covers the walls of the abdominal cavity

Visceral peritoneum

Covers the internal organs

Mesenteries

Thin membranes continuous between the parietal and viscera peritoneums that attach the internal organs to the dorsal body wall

Omentia

Thin membranes extending from the visceral peritoneums and connect organ to organ

Liver

Dark-colored organ suspended just under the diaphragm. Produces bile to digest fat, stores glycogen, transforms nitrogenous wastes into less harmful things, transforms digested nutrients into various molecules

Median or cystic lobe

The part of the liver at the top with a cleft in the center

Left lateral lobe

The large part of the liver partially covered by the stomach

Right lateral lobe

The part of the liver that is partially divided into an anterior and posterior lobule. Is smaller than the left lateral lobe, and is hidden from view by the median lobe

Caudate lobe

The part of the liver that is small and folds around the esophagus and stomach and appears to be in two small sections

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