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Chapters 6,7

The term osseous tissue refers to

bone only.

If thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect

an elevated level of osteoblast activity.

Hemopoiesis typically occurs in

the red bone marrow.

The most serious effect of severe hypocalcaemia is likely to be

laryngospasm and suffocation.

Calcium homeostasis in adults is maintained mainly by

parathyroid hormone.

Osteoblasts deposit more bone matrix in response to all of the following factors except

parathyroid hormone

A farmers finger is pulled completely off his hand by a piece of farm machinery. This is

an avulsion.

All of the following components of the bone matrix are organic except

hydroxapatite.

Most bones develop from

hyaline cartilage.

The cells primarly responsible for the breakdown of bone

osteoclasts.

The protein fibers of the bone matrix are composed of

Collagen.

Appositional growth of a long bone has the effect of

increasing the diameter of the bone.

Bones found in the forearm are

long bones.

Osteocytes in the outer lamellae of an osteon transport their wastes to the bloodstream

canaliculi.

The___ forms by endochondral ossification.

Humerus.

Formation of ___is a stage in tramembranous ossification.

Osteoid tissue.

In the development of the skeleton, what typically occurs around the ages of 18-21?

The epiphyseal plates close.

When bone is being resorbed, acid phosphate dissolves its

collagen.

Hypocalcaemia can result from any of the following expect

excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone.

One thing calcitrol does that parathyroid hormone does not is

stimulate the small intestine to absorb more phosphate.

A soft callus forms during

the healing of a fracture.

The skeletal system performs all of the following functions except

regulation of body temperature.

Hydroxyapatite is best described as

calcium phosphate crystals in the bone matrix.

A canaliculus of compact bone contains

a process of an osteocyte.

Based on shape, parietal bones are classified as

flat.

Bones that serve as levers and are moved by skeletal muscle to produce movement are termed

long bones.

The cavity in the diaphysis of long bones is called the ____ cavity and commonly contains ____ marrow.

Medullary, yellow

The periosteum is a connective tissue sheath which lines the ____of bones and fuses with bones by way of ___ fibers.

Outer space, perforating

Fat is stored in the

medullary cavity of long bones.

Which one of the bone cells is most closely related to white blood cells.

Osteoclasts.

Hydroxyapatite refers the crystal of bone which is made primarly of

calcium phosphate.

Which one of the following is found in the compact bone but not in spongy bone?

Central Canals

Not all compact bone is organized around a central canal with concentric lamellae. Lamellae found in the inner and outer boundaries of dense bone run parallel to the bone surface. These lamellae are called ____

interstitial.

Bones of the skull and clavicle develop by

intramembranous ossification.

As bone grows in the child only two areas of cartilage are left at each epiphysis. These two areas are

articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate.

At the epiphyseal plate, the zone of calcification

minerals are deposited between lacunae, chondrocytes die and a calcified matrix is left.

In the zone of bone deposition, ____ cells rapidly invade the calcified matrix and lay done bone. Then___ cells erode the spongy bone to form the marrow cavity.

Osteoblast, osteoclast

If the pH of blood drops below 7.35, your body is said to be in a state of acidosis. To counteract this acidosis, you would expect your kidneys to excrete more hydrogen ions, your breathing rate to increase to blow off more carbon dioxide, and your bone to

increase the activity of osteoclasts.

An individual has the following symptoms: increased excitability of the nervous system and increased muscle spasms particularly in the hands and feet. This individual most likely is suffering from

hypocalcaemia.

Osteoclasts are stimulated, calcium is reabsorbed by the kidneys, calcitriol is formed and osteoblasts are inhibited from forming collagen. The best explanation for these activities is

low blood calcium and increased production of PTH.

The use of anabolic steroids by adolescent boys will

decrease the growth of bone by prematurely closing the epiphyseal plate.

A fracture of the distal end of the radius and ulna is called a

Colles.

A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a

comminuted.

A loss of bone mass, especially spongy bone, is usually a result of lack of exercise or deficiency of estrogen after menopause. This disorder is called

osteoporosis.

Nodding your head "yes" represents movement of which type of joint.

A second class lever/Saddle Joint

All of the following are paranasal sinuses except

the temporal.

The internal and extrenal acoustic meatuses are openings in

the temporal bone.

The sphenoid bone has all of the following features except

an ifraorbital foramen.

Which of the following skull bones are paired?

parietal.

The lambdoid suture separates the parietal bones from

the occipital bone.

The styloid process, mastoid process, and zygomatic processes are parts of the

temporal bone.

The ____bone of the skull articulates with the vertebral column.

occipital.

All of the following are facial bones except _____, which is a cranial bone.

The ethmoid bone.

The fetal skull has all of the following fontanels except for a/an

occipital.

There are ___ vertebrae and pairs of ribs

12

The axis is the only vertebra with

a dens.

Which of these bones is in the antebrachium

Ulna.

The glenoid cavity is a point of articulation between

the scapula and humerus.

The cranial bones have a middle layer of spongy bone called

the diploe.

Which part of the mandible articulates with the cranium?

the mandibular notch.

The ___of a vertebra bears the most weight.

centrum.

Costal faucets are found only on

thoracic vertebra.

Two bones have auricular surfaces, namely

the sacrum and os coxae.

Each clavicle articulates with

manubrium and scapula.

A costal cartilage connects each __to the ___.

rib, sternum

The___is fractured more often than any other bone.

Clavicle

Stickly speaking the "arm" refers only to

the brachium.

A styloid process is found on all of the following except

the femur.

Which of the following is not in the same class with the others?

cuneiform.

Which of the following is not found in the skull?

orturator foramen

A rounded knob that articulates with another bone is called a ?

condoyle

A shallow, broad or elongated basin in bone is called a(N)

fossa.

A small rounded process is called a ___ while a massive process is called a(n)___.

turbercle, trochanter.

Which one of the sinuses below does not communicate with the nasal cavity?

Mastoid.

The suture that separates the two parietal bones is called the ___surture.

sagittal.

The smooth area of the frontal bone just above the nasal bones is called the

Glabella.

The suture that separates the parietal bone from the occipital bone is the____ suture, while the suture between the parietal and temporal bone is the___ suture.

Lambdoid,squamous

The large irregular opening just medial to the syloid process of the temporal bone is the

external acoustic meatus.

Which one of the foramens listed below is not found in the sphenoid?

mental foramen.

Which one of the features listed below is not found in the ethmoid bone?

inferior nasal conchae

This bone, which resembles the blade of a plow, forms the inferior part of the nasal septum and is called the

vomer.

the mandibular condoyles articulates with the

mandibular fossae of the temporal bone

An abnormal lateral spinal curvature, which is more common in adolescent girls is called

scoliosis.

The region of the vertebral column, which has the most number of fused or unfused vertebrae, is the

thoracic.

This vertebra has the following characteristics:body,vertebral foramen, spinous process,transverse process,and transverse foramen. This vertebra is a

cervical.

In herniated, ruptured or slipped disc the area of fibrocartilage called the ___cracks and the ___ oozes out and may put painful pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerve.

annulus fibrosus,nucleus pulposus.

The head of most ribs articulates with the body of the thoracic vertebra at the

superior and inferior costal facets.

Ribs 8 through 10 attach to costal cartilage of rib 7. RIbs 8 through 10 are called____.

false ribs.

The capitulum of the humerus articulates with the__while the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the ___.

radius,ulna.

The funny bone refers to the

medial epicondyle.

How many phlanges are in each hand or foot

14

The tibia is one of the major weight bearing bones of the leg and articulates inferiorly with this weight-bearing bone called the___.

The Talus

Unlike other joints, a ___does not join two bones to each other.

gomphosis.

Which movement is limited to the foot?

dorsiflexion

Which of these is a first class lever?

the atlanto-occipital joint

Which of these bursae bis not associated with the shoulder joint?

olecranon bursa.

Which of these is a gliding joint?

The patellofemoral joint.

The humerus is held in the glenoid cavity more securely by the ___ than any other structure.

glenoid labrum.

If two bones are joined so firmly together they cannot move, they form

a synarthrosis.

The hyaline costal cartilage that attaches a rib to the sternum forms___.

synchondrosis.

The cartilage pad called a meniscus is found within the knee and ___joints.

tempromandibular.

Which of the following is multiaxial?

the coxal joint.

To raise your hand and place it on the shoulder of the person standing in front of you involves ____of the shoulder.

Flexion

To be sitting on a sofa and raise your arm to rest it on the back of the sofa involves___at the shoulder joint.

abduction.

If you stand on tiptoes to reach something on a high shelf, you are performing ___at the ankle joint.

plantar flexion.

A fibrous joint cannot also be

a diarthrosis.

Suppose you cup your hands to hold some water. This action would most likely involve

adduction of the fingers.

A metocarpophlangeal joint is a

ball and socket joint.

A certain lever has a fulcrum at one end, a tendon exerting an effort of 5 cm distal to the fulcrum and acts againt a resistance of 6 cm distal to the effort. What is the mechanical advantage?

.83

Which of the following is true of joints that are first-class levers.

Their mechanical advantage may be greater or less than 1.0

Radial and Ulnar collateral ligaments restrict side-to-side movements of the ___joint.

elbow

The patella and femur form a ___ joint.

gliding.

A tendon sheath is a modified

bursa.

A torn tendon or ligament is the cause of a

sprain.

A joint, such as the knee or elbow, which is freely moveable is termed

diarthrois.

A structurally classified joint which has no synovial cavity and is held together by ligaments is termed

fibrous.

The functional and structural classifications that best describe the tibiofibular joint are

amphiarthroses, fibrous joint

The suture between the temporal bone and parietal bone and between the temporal bone and sphenoid bone is called____.

lap

The joint between the ribs and costal cartilage is ____ joint which is specifically called a _____.

cartilaginous, synchondrosis

The pubic symphysis is made up of

fibrocartilage.

Synovial fluid is rich in ___ and ____ which gives it a viscous slippery texture similar to egg white before it is heated into white gel.

albumin,hyalurinic acid

The articular cartilage found in a synovial joint is

hyaline cartilage.

The meniscus is composed of

fibrocartilage.

The elbow is an example of what joint?

hinge

If you are moving your head, from side to side to say "no", you are using this type of joint.

pivot

Which one of the following joints does not fit with the others?

proximal radioulnar joint between head of the radius and radial notch of the ulna.

Which one of the following is the weakest joint?

Ball and socket(head of humerus, glenoid fossa of scapula)

The movement in which one end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the other end makes a circular motion is

Circumduction.

The movement of the foot where the soles are turned medially is____.

An inversion.

Which lever type is most common in the human body?

third.

The coxal, or hip joint contains a ring of fibrocartilage called the ____.

acetabular labrum.

The achilles heel is the

calcaneal tendon.

The crunching or crackling sounds in aging joints are caused by____.

Roughened cartilage moving.

Which type of joint is the epiphyseal plate?

synchondrosis.

Which of the following joint allows for the most movement?

pivot.

The joint between a tooth an alveolar socket is called____.

gomphosis.

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