History Ch. 8 test

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Hamilton's Program

1. Hamilton's long-range goal was to make the United States a major commercial and military power.
2. His program had five parts:
a. Create creditworthiness
b. Create a new national debt
c. Create a bank of the United States
d. Tax producers of whisky
e. Impose tariffs and government subsidies

The Emergence of Opposition

1. Opposition to Hamilton's plan was voiced by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
a. Hamilton's plan depended on a close relationship with Britain.
b. Opponents believed the United States' future lay westward, not with Britain.

The Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain

1. At first, opposition to Hamilton's program arose almost entirely from the South.
2. Both Hamilton and his opponents used the Constitution as justification of their cause.
3. The South accepted Hamilton's plan after being promised that the national capital would move to the South.

The Impact of the French Revolution

1. The French Revolution became very radical by 1793 and France went to war with Britain.
2. George Washington declared American neutrality.
3. Jay's Treaty abandoned any American alliance with France by positioning the United States close to Britain.

Political Parties

1. The Federalist Party supported Washington and Hamilton's economic plan and close ties with Britain.
a. Freedom rested on deference to authority.

The Whiskey Rebellion

2. this event in 1794 proved to Federalists that democracy in the hands of ordinary citizens was dangerous.

The Republican Party

1. Republicans were more sympathetic to France and had more faith in democratic self-government.
2. Political language became more and more heated.

An Expanding Public Sphere

1. The political debates of the 1790s expanded this thing.
2. Newspapers and pamphlets were a primary vehicle for political debate.
a. William Manning's The Key of Liberty

The Democratic-Republican Societies

1. Political liberty meant not simply voting at elections but constant involvement in public affairs.
2. Thomas Paine's The Rights of Man inspired Republicans.

The Rights of Women

1. The expansion of the public sphere offered women an opportunity to take part in political discussions, read newspapers, and hear orations.
a. Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women
b. Sarah W. Morton
c. Judith Sargent Murray
2. A common call was for greater educational opportunities.

Women and the Republic

1. Although politics was a realm for men, the American Revolution had deepened the democratization of public life.

The Adams Election of 1796

1. Although politics was a realm for men, the American Revolution had deepened the democratization of public life.

The Reign of Witches

1. The Alien and Sedition Acts limited civil liberties.
2. As the main target was the Republican press, Thomas Jefferson charged the acts were reminiscent of the Salem witch trials.

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1. The Sedition Act thrust freedom of expression to the center of discussions of American liberty.

The Revolution of 1800

1. Jefferson defeated Adams in the 1800 presidential campaign.
2. A constitutional crisis emerged with the election.
a. Twelfth Amendment
b. Hamilton-Burr duel
3. Adams's acceptance of defeat established the vital precedent of a peaceful transfer of power from a defeated party to its successor.

Slavery and Politics

1. The First Congress received petitions calling for emancipation.

The Haitian Revolution

1. Events during the 1790s underscored how powerfully slavery defined and distorted American freedom.
2. Successful slave uprising in Haiti led by Toussaint L'Ouverture established Haiti as an independent nation in 1804.

Gabriel's Rebellion

1. A slave rebellion was attempted in Virginia in 1800.
2. The conspiracy was rooted in the institution of Richmond's black community.
3. this man spoke the language of liberty forged in the American Revolution and reinvigorated during the 1790s.
4. Virginian slave laws became stricter.

Jefferson in Power

1. Jefferson's inaugural address was conciliatory toward his opponents.
2. However, he hoped to dismantle as much of the Federalist system as possible.

Judicial Review

1. John Marshall's Supreme Court established the Court's power to review laws of Congress and the states.
2. Marbury v. Madison
a. Judicial review
3. Fletcher v. Peck

The Louisiana Purchase

1. To purchase Louisiana, Jefferson had to abandon his conviction that the federal government was limited to powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
2. Jefferson's concern with the territory was over trade though New Orleans.
3. Jefferson justified his overreach of the Constitution by securing economic stability for his virtuous agrarian farmers

Lewis and Clark

1. these 2 men object was both scientific and commercial.
2. Their journey from 1804 to 1806 brought invaluable information and paved the way for a transcontinental country

Incorporating Louisiana

1. New Orleans.
2. Louisiana's slaves had enjoyed far more freedom under the rule of tyrannical Spain than as part of the liberty-loving United States.

Foreign Entanglements

1. European wars directly influenced the livelihood of American farmers, merchants, and artisans.
a. Jefferson hoped to avoid foreign entanglements.
2. Barbary pirates.

The Embargo

1. War between France and Great Britain hurt American trade.
a. Impressment
2. resulted in a crippled U.S. economy.
a. Replaced with Non-Intercourse Act

Madison and Pressure for War

1. Macon's Bill No. 2 allowed trade to resume.
2. War Hawks called for war against Britain.
a. Wished to annex Canada

The Indian Response

1. The period from 1800 to 1812 was an age of prophecy among the Indians.

Tecumseh's Vision

2. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa tried to revive a pan-Indian movement and unite against the white man.

The War of 1812

1. Madison asked for war for the sake of national pride.
2. The government found it difficult to finance the war.
3. Americans enjoyed few military successes.
a. Peace came with the Treaty of Ghent in December 1814.

The War's Aftermath

1. The war confirmed the ability of a republican government to conduct a war without surrendering its institutions.
2. The war also strengthened a growing sense of nationalism in Canada.
3. A casualty of the war was the Federalist Party.
a. Hartford Convention

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