A double walled sac that encloses the heart, anchored to the diaphragm below and to the connective tissue of the great vessels above
The tough outer sac that protects the heart against sudden overfilling.
Consists of 2 layers: a parietal pericardium and a visceral pericardium
Consists of a tough fibrous layer of dense irregular tissue that is fused to the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium, and a thin, smooth, moist serous layer.
Also called the epicardium; formed at the base of the heart where the serous layer turns inward
An inflammation of the serous pericardium that causes pericardial effusion, which is the passage of fluid from the pericardial capillaries into the pericardial cavity.
Pericardial friction rub
An important physical sign of pericarditis. Inflammation causes the surfaces to become rough and the resulting friction sounds like the rustle of silk during forced expiration and is very painful
Covers the heart and has thick dposits of fat that fill grooves in the heart surface and protect coronary vessels.
Thick, middle layer of cardiac muscle cells; the muscle cells spiral around the heart and are bound together by a meshwork of callagenous and elastic fibers that make up the fibrous skeleton.
Provides structural support and electrically insulates the atria from the ventricles.
Consists of simple squamous endothelium overlying a thin areolar tissue layer that froms the valves and the smooth inner lining of the chambers.
Inflammation of the endocardium caused by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and yeast.
Forms the upper right border of the heart and drains venous blood from the systemic and coronary circulation.
a small, conical muscular pouch taht is continuous with the atrium; it projects to the left of the right atrium and overlaps the ascending aorta.
Forms the thin medial wall of the right atrium and separates teh right and left atria from each other
A large shallow translucent oval depression. This is called the Foramen ovale before birth.
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
Allows recently oygenated blood in the left atrium to be shunted through the defect into the right atrium. Appears in the superior part of the fossa ovalis in 10% of neonates with congenital heart defects
Superior Vena cava
Returns venous blood from the head and neck region
Inferior Vena Cava
Returns blood from all areas of the body except for the head and neck region
Returns venous blood from the coronary circulation
Forms the largest part of the anterior surface of the heart and almost the entire inferior border of the heart.
Internal muscular ridges and columns of the ventricular walls.
The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium through this
Pumps the blood to the lungs via this ______________which branches into the pulmonary arteries.
Forms most of the base and posterior aspect of the heart.
Thrombi (blood clots)
Form on the walls of the atria in some types of heart disease.
A thrombus that breaks off, passes into the circulation and occlude a vessel.
Heart Attack: caused by occlusion of a main artery
Stroke: Caused by occlusion of a main artery
Forms the apex of the heart, nearly all its left border, and diaphragmatic surface. It receives blood from the left atrium through the bicuspid valve and then pumps the blood to the body via the ascending aorta.
A thick and strong partition between the right and left ventricles.
Ventricular Septal Defect
A condition where the membranous area does not close completely. Allows blood to leak from the left ventricle to the right ventricle when the ventricles contract. Ultimately leads to reduced oxygen supply to the tissues and organs of the body.
Accounts f0r 25% of all forms of congenigal heart disease.
Tricuspid AV valve
Allows blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle and has three leaflets.
Bicuspid AV valve
Allows blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle and has two leaflets.
Connect the valve leaflets to conical papillary muscles on the floor of the ventricles.
May be heard through a stethoscope as a whistling sound
The distal part of the ascending aorta is a common location for developing this ____________.
Provide the heart with a continuous supply of oxygenated blood.
Right coronary artery
Curves around the right ventricle to supply hte right atrium, continues along the sulcus under the right auricle, and then gives off tow branches.
Left coronary artery
Passes under the left auricle and divides into two branches.
Continues around the left side of the heart in the coronary sulcus and supplies blood to the left atrium and posterior wall of the left ventricle.
Results in lipid accumlation on the internal walls of the coronary arteries; resulting in a slow narrowing of vessel lumen.
Shortage of blood supply results when the myocardium is required to perform increased amounts of work during exercise and the inadequate supply of blood does not provide enough oxygen.
Characterized by substernal discomfort resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stress causes arterial constriction and is a common cause.
3 Most common sites of coronary occlusion
Anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery
The right coronary artery
Circumflex branch of the left coronary artery
Coronary Artery bypass graft
A segment of the internal thoracic vein or great saphenous vein is grafted to the ascending aorta or to the proximal part of a coronary artery and then to the coronary areas distal to the occlusion.
Tubular device composed of special fabric supported by a rigid structure, placed inside the constricted part of the area to hold it open.