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Marieb 4th Edition

Articulation

Site where two or more bones meet

Functions of joints

Gives Skeleton mobility and holds skeleton together

Synarthroses

immovable

Amphiarthroses

slightly moveable

Diathroses

freely moveable

Functional Classification of joints

Based on amount of movement allowed by the joint

Structural Classification of joints

Based on material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present.

Fibrous joints

Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissues, most are immovable, have no joint cavity

Sutures

Fibrous joint: Rigid interlocking joints that contain short connective tissue fibers, allow for growth during youth. In middle age they ossify and are called synostoses. Found only in the skull.

Syndesmoses

Fibrous joint: bones connected by ligaments. Movement varies from immovable to slightly moveable. Example: Synarthrotic distal tibiofibular joint. And Diathrotic interosseous connection between radius and ulna.

Gomphoses

Fibrous Joint: Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets. Fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament. (holds tooth in socket)

Cartilaginous Joints

Bones united by cartilage. No joint cavity. Two types are Synchondroses and Symphyses.

Synchondroses

Cartilaginous joint: A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bone. All or synarthrotic.

Symphyses

Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surfaces and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage. Strong, flexible amphiarthroses.

Synovial Joints

All are diarthrotic. Includes all limb joints; most joints of the body. Distinguished by Articular cartilage; hyaline cartilage and Joint cavity: small potential space. Articular capsule: Outer fibrous capsule of dense irregular tissue and inner synovial membrane of loose connective tissue. Synovial fluid: Viscous slippery filtrate of plasma + hyaluronic acid and it lubricates and nourishes the articular cartilage.

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