Chp 20 French Revolution Terms and Names

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Bastille

The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles

Coup d'etat Brumaire

The moment when Napoleon seized power by overthrowing The Directory and gaining control of France in 1799

emigres

French nobles who fled France once the Revolution began and worked outside the country to restore the monarchy

Louis XVI

- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

Marie Antoinette

daughter of the empress of Austria, married to Louis XVI at age 15, accused of lavish spending that added to the national debt

Estates General

The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.

Abbe Sieyes

French lower clergyman who wrote the famous revolutionary pamphlet "What is the Third Estate?".

First Estate

The class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.

Second Estate

The class of French society made up of the noblility

Third Estate

The class of French society made up of peasants, city workers, bourgeoisie

Jacques Necker

finance minister to Louis XVI who proposed that the king tax the 1st and 2nd estates.

cahiers de doleances

Each estate was instructed to make a list of their grievances and give them to the king

Great Fear

The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and tax records

National Assembly

A French legislative body established by representatives of the Third Estate

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law

Olympe de Gouges

a female journalist who demanded equal rights for French women

sans-culottes

the common people of France who did hard manual labor

Jacobins

the most radical French middle class political club which wanted to remove the king and establish a republic

Reign of Terror

the time period where a "republic of virtue" was created by executing any opponents with guillotine

Robespierre

revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility

Girondins

faction of the Jacobins that wanted the king to live, favored a constitutonal monarch

The Mountain

faction of the Jacobins that wanted to execute the king so France could have a republic

Tennis Court Oath

The Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly and swore to remain together until they had created a French constitution.

Jean-Paul Marat

One of the most radical members of the Revolution, he organized a women's march on the king's palace and was later assassinated by a monarchy supporter

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

After the Revolution, this created a national church and brought the church under government control. Church property was sold to pay off national debt. Alienated Catholics from the goals of the Revolution.

assignats

The new paper currency created after the Revolution; it's value was backed up by former church property.

Brunswick Manifesto

Prussia and Austria threatened to destroy Paris if the king and queen were harmed.

Committee of Public Safety

Provisional government during the radical phase of the Revolution led by Robespierre, executed opponents

levee en masse

A draft of every available French person in order to fight off outside attackers, created an army of 1 million men.

The Directory

Five member executive board chosen to govern France in 1795.

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