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Spain, England, & France During The Age Of Absolutism

Tudor

the _______ line of monarchs (Henry VIII, Edward VI, Bloody Mary, Elizabeth I)

Petition of Right

in 1628, Charles I summoned Parliament to ask for money but before they would give him money they made him sign the ______, which prohibited the King from raising taxes without Parliament's consent or putting people in jail for no reason

Long Parliament

a thirteen year session of Parliament (1640 - 1653), Parliament called for the abolition of bishops (after executing Charles I's top ministers) and declared that only Parliament could dissolve Parliament

English Civil War

lasted from 1642 - 1651, Charles I's Cavaliers vs. Parliament's Roundheads, the Cavaliers lost and Charles I was executed

Tudor Monarchs' Relationship With Parliament

The ____________ was good, though the Tudors believed in divine right they cooperated with Parliament well

Commonwealth

after Charles I's execution, England was declared a republic called the __________ under Cromwell

William Laud (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Charles I's archbishop, helped Charles I try to impose Anglican book on Scots, was thought to have been attempting to bring back Catholic rituals

James I

Charles I's father, also an absolute monarch who clashed with Parliament, also clashed with dissenters much like his son, beginning of the Stuart line

Restoration

bringing back the previously unnamed heir (Charles II) after Cromwell's death brought about the fall of the Commonwealth

Changes The Puritans Made To English Society

lawsthat could cause fines for anyone who was caught not praying on a Sunday; most theaters and taverns were closed, education for all was encouraged, marriage based on love and fidelity was encouraged

Charles I

King before the Commonwealth who was overthrown and killed during the English Civil War, an absolute monarch who clashed with Parliament

Levellers

a group during the Commonwealth that encouraged an equal voice among all social classes, was suppressed by Cromwell

Lord Protector

Cromwell's title from 1653 to his death in 1658, basically a dictator, took this title in response to challenges from different "radical" groups including the Levellers

Oliver Cromwell

leader of the English Commonwealth, was Lord Protector (dictator) from 1653 - 1658, his death sparked the return to the monarchy

Roundheads

the soldiers of the Parliament's side, made up of country gentry and manufacturers from small towns and Puritans, they were nicknamed after their simple and short haircuts

Cavaliers

Charles I's soldiers, mostly wealthy nobles, known for the plumed hats and long, flowing hair in contrast to the Roundhead's simple appearance

Glorious Revolution

the bloodless overthrowing of James II in favor of William & Mary

"Good Queen Bess"

Elizabeth I's nickname, was very popular but died unmarried and childless

Act of Supremacy

act that made the monarch head of the Church of England (there was one for Henry VIII and one for Elizabeth I)

James I And Charles I's Relationship With Parliament

__________ was bad, they clashed constantly with and often dissolved Parliament

Henry VIII

King of England 1509 - 1547, at first was a firm believer of Catholicism but wanted to divorce wife so took over over Church of England with help of Parliament

Elizabeth I

popular and successful "Good Queen Bess", re-establish Protestantism after sister Mary repealed it but kept many Catholic rituals

Stuart

the _______ line of monarchs (James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, William & Mary)

95 Theses

Martin Luther's list of grievances against the Catholic church

William & Mary

monarchs after James II, were forced to sign English Bill Of Rights before being crowned

"Defender of the Faith"

title given to Henry VIII by the Pope after he criticized the 95 Theses

English Bill of Rights

document signed by William & Mary, required monarch to summon Parliament regularly, gave House of Commons power over funds, restated right of trial by jury and affirmed habeus corpus, barred Roman Catholics from the throne

Habeas Corpus

a person who is arrested has to be brought in front of a judge or into court

Limited Monarchy

English monarchs ruled in partnership with the Parliament

Constitutional Government

government whose power is defined and limited by law

Charles II

brought back from exile and made King, popular because he reopened taverns & theaters and had a lively court, believed in absolutism but avoided clashing with Parliament

King James Bible

Bible translated into English under King James I's reign (1611)

James II

inherited throne in 1685, suspended laws on whim and openly practiced Catholicism, Parliament invited his daughter to become King and he fled to France in the Glorious Revolution

John Locke

philosopher during the Enlightenment, talked about natural rights (life, liberty, & property), his ideas influenced American Revolution & Declaration of Independence

Prime Minister

head of the cabinet, leader of majority party & chief official in British government

Tories and Whigs

first political parties in England

Anglican Church

Church of England, created by Henry VIII to divorce Catherine of Aragon

Elizabeth I's Accomplishments

reinstated Protestantism but kept many Catholic rituals and traditions, consulted and had a good relationship with Parliament, defeated the Spanish Aramada

Dissenters

Puritans who wanted to get rid of the Church of England's Catholic practices, wanted simpler services and a democratic church without bishops

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