A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a stimulatory response that is similar to what an endogenous substance (such as a hormone) would have done if it were bound to the receptor.
A drug or another agent that blocks or antagonizes the effects of another substance or function.
The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration.
The combination of substances with gulcuronic or sulfuric acid, terminating biologic activity and making them ready for excretion.
The relationship between the dose of a drug (or other agent) that produces therapeutic effects and the potency of the effects on the person. Aka - dose-response relationship.
After the drug is in the liver, it is partly metabolized before being sent to the body, where systemic effects occur.
(t ½) The time taken for the blood or plasma concentration of the drug to decrease from full to one-half (50%).
The cleaving of a compound into simpler compounds with the uptake of the hydrogen and hydroxide parts of a water molecule.
The sum of chemical and physical changes in the tissues, consisting of anabolism and catabolism.
The biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and mechanisms of drug action (the effects of a drug on the body or organism).
The study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation (metabolism), and excretion of drugs.
The study of how drugs may be best used in the treatment of illnesses and which drug is most or lease appropriate to use for a specific disease.
Occurs when enzymes in the GI tract begin to break down the drug before it is absorbed.
The cell recipient, usually a specific protein, situated either in cell membranes on cell surfaces or within the cellular cytoplasm.
The development of resistance to the effects of a drug such that the drug's doses must be continually raised to elicit the desired response.
An interaction between two drugs that causes an effect greater than that which would have been expected.
Poor metabolism or excretion of a drug leads to a build-up of the drug in the body.
Occurs when two drugs with opposing actions interact, reducing the effectiveness of one or both.
Drugs mixed in a formulation with other ingredients to improve the stability, taste, or physical form to allow appropriate adminitration of the active drug.