Introduction to Pharmacology

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Chapter 1 key words from the book - Focus on Pharmacology, 2nd ed.by J. Moini

absorption

The process of drug movement into the systemic circulation.

adverse effects

Harmful effects.

affinity

Attractive force.

agonist

A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a stimulatory response that is similar to what an endogenous substance (such as a hormone) would have done if it were bound to the receptor.

anaphylactic shock

Sudden and severe allergic reaction that may be life threatening.

antagonist

A drug or another agent that blocks or antagonizes the effects of another substance or function.

bioavailability

The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration.

biotransformation

The process of conversion of drugs.

conjugation

The combination of substances with gulcuronic or sulfuric acid, terminating biologic activity and making them ready for excretion.

dissolution

The process of dissolving.

distribution

The passage of an agent through blood or lymph to various body sites.

dose-effect relationship

The relationship between the dose of a drug (or other agent) that produces therapeutic effects and the potency of the effects on the person. Aka - dose-response relationship.

excretion

The last stage of pharmacokinetics that removes drugs from the system.

first-pass effect

After the drug is in the liver, it is partly metabolized before being sent to the body, where systemic effects occur.

half-life

(t ½) The time taken for the blood or plasma concentration of the drug to decrease from full to one-half (50%).

hydrolysis

The cleaving of a compound into simpler compounds with the uptake of the hydrogen and hydroxide parts of a water molecule.

idiosyncratic

Something peculiar to an individual.

metabolism

The sum of chemical and physical changes in the tissues, consisting of anabolism and catabolism.

overdose

A toxic dose of the drug that causes harm.

oxidation

Combination with oxygen.

pharmacodynamics

The biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and mechanisms of drug action (the effects of a drug on the body or organism).

pharmacognosy

The study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources.

pharmacokinetics

The study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation (metabolism), and excretion of drugs.

pharmacology

The study of drugs, including their action and effects in living body systems.

pharmacotherapeutics

The study of how drugs may be best used in the treatment of illnesses and which drug is most or lease appropriate to use for a specific disease.

presystemic metabolism

Occurs when enzymes in the GI tract begin to break down the drug before it is absorbed.

receptor

The cell recipient, usually a specific protein, situated either in cell membranes on cell surfaces or within the cellular cytoplasm.

reduction

A reaction with a substance that involves the gaining of electrons.

side effects

Effects not necessarily intended. They are usually (but not always) undesirable.

therapeutic

Effects meant to treat a disease or disorder.

tolerance

The development of resistance to the effects of a drug such that the drug's doses must be continually raised to elicit the desired response.

toxicity

The state of being noxious and refers to a drug's ability to poison the body.

toxicology

The study of poisons and poisonings.

contraindication

A reason that makes it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug.

synergism

The combined effect of two drugs.

potentiation

An interaction between two drugs that causes an effect greater than that which would have been expected.

cumulative effect

Poor metabolism or excretion of a drug leads to a build-up of the drug in the body.

polypharmacy

The act or practice of prescribing too many medicines.

opposition

Occurs when two drugs with opposing actions interact, reducing the effectiveness of one or both.

alteration

How the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, or excretes a drug.

uticaria

Vascular reaction of the skin characterized by a rash and severe itching.

pruritus

Itching.

medicine (medication)

Drugs mixed in a formulation with other ingredients to improve the stability, taste, or physical form to allow appropriate adminitration of the active drug.

ADR

adverse drug reaction

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