A high-pitched sound caused by obstruction of the air passageway
An acute, self limiting larynogotracheobronchitis
Typical age of children who get _______ is 6 months to 5 years old. 15% show family history
Parainfluenze, influenza A, or RSV
When does Croup usually occur?
After an episode of rhinorrhea, sore throat and fever
Describe a croup cough
Subglottic Edema produces a seal-like barking cough
How is croup treated?
with racemic epinephrine and O2, cold air also workds to decrease inflammation
Epiglottitis Acute airway obstruction caused by marked edema of the epiglottis and other supraglottic stuctures
Is Epiglottitis life threatening emergency?
What causes Epiglottitis?
Haemophilus influenzae type B
What has decreased the incidence rate of Epiglotitis?
Signs of Epiglottitis:
Stridor, dysphagia, copious drooling
condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
Treatment of epiglottitis
emergency airway, oxygen, epiephrine, nebulized glucocorticoids, and antibiotics
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
IRDS is also called?
Hyaline membrane disease(HMD)
What conditions can cause IRDS?
Prematurity and inadequate surfactant production
collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants)
What happen in IRDS?
Atelectasis and hypoxia cause pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary HTN, and blood shunting
How is the hyaline membrane created in IRDS?
Epithelial damage and fibrin deposits in the airspaces
Autosomal recessive multi-system disease
What is cystic Fibrosis?
Exocrine or mucus-producing glands secrete abnormally thick mucus
How does the thick mucus of cystic fibrosis predispose one to chronic infections?
the thick secretions obstruct the bronchioles and predispose them to infections
What does the cronic inflammation of Cystic Fibrosis lead to?
Leads to hyperplasia of globlet cells, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, hypoxia, fibrosis
What is the most common cause of Bronchiolitis in children?
How does Bronchiolitis work?
Viral infection causes necrosis of the bronchial epitghelium and ciliated cells
How does Bronchiolitis progress?
Very small terminal bronchi become edematous and plugged with mucous and cellualar debris
Symptoms of bronchiolitis:
coughing, epiratory wheeze, tachypnea, nasal flaring, and possibly cyanosis
How is bronchiolitis diagnosed?
X-ray: hyperinflation andf flattened diaphram