Biology I - Chapter 2A - Basic Chemistry

46 terms by ldryer Plus

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For Biology I students at Christian Life School

Matter

Anything that takes up space and has mass

Mass

The quantity of matter in an object

Elements

Pure substances that are made up entirely of one type of atom

4 Major Elements of Life & Symbols

Oxygen (O)
Hydrogen (H)
Nitrogen (N)
Carbon (C)

Atom

Smallest particle of an element that still has all the properties of that element

3 Subatomic particles

Protons
Neutrons
Electrons

Proton Information

Has a positive charge
Has a mass of 1
Found in the nucleus

Neutron Information

Has a neutral/no charge
Has a mass of 1
Found in the nucleus

Electron Information

Has a negative charge
Has a mass of 1/1840
Found in energy levels surrounding the nucleus

Nucleus

Center of an atom; contains protons & neutrons

Atomic number

Tells the number of protons in an atom

Atomic mass

Tells the number of protons PLUS neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

How many electrons can the first (K) electron energy level hold?

2

How many electrons can the rest (L-Q)of the energy levels in an atom hold?

8

Compound

Substances made up of two or more elements in definite proportions

Molecule

Smallest unit of a compound that still has the properties of that compound

Subscript

When looking at a chemical formula, this follows the symbol and tells the number of atoms of each element in the compound

Coefficients

When looking at a chemical formula, this number comes before the formula and tells the number of molecules

Covalent bond

When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Ionic bond

When atoms give or take electrons

Positive ions

The name given to atoms that lose electrons

Negative ions

The name given to atoms that gain electrons

Energy

The ability to do work

Kinetic energy

Energy in motion

Potential energy

Energy that is stored up

Three states of matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas

Activation energy

The amount of energy needed to start a reaction

3 Characteristics of Enzymes

They are proteins
There are thousands of different ones
They are very specific

How enzymes work

Enzymes work on substances called substrates
Substrates fit into a place on the enzyme called the active site

Label the parts of enzyme activity

Solution

A uniform mixture of one or more substances within another substance

Solute

Substance that is dissolved in a solution

Solvent

Substance that does the dissolving in a solution

Water

The universal solvent

Saturated

A solution in which no more solutes can be dissolved

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached

equi-

equal

-librium

balance

Concentration gradient

Difference between the numbers of one type of molecule in two adjacent areas

Osmosis

Movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane

Semi-permeable membrane

Allows some ions or molecules to pass through and others not too

semi-

half

-permeable

to pass through

Draw a pH scale and label the acids, bases, and neutral areas with all the proper numbers (pH)

0-under 7 is acidic
7 is neutral
Above 7-14 is basic (alkaline)

Buffer

Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in pH

How to properly read the Periodic Table

This is an example of a question that will be on the test.
Name of element - Krypton
Element symbol - Kr
Atomic number - 36
# of protons - 36 (same as Atomic #)
# of electrons - 36 (same as proton #)
Atomic mass - 84 (rounded up)
# of neutrons - 48 (Atomic mass MINUS Atomic number)

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