Biology I - Chapter 2A - Basic Chemistry

46 terms by ldryer Plus

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For Biology I students at Christian Life School


Anything that takes up space and has mass


The quantity of matter in an object


Pure substances that are made up entirely of one type of atom

4 Major Elements of Life & Symbols

Oxygen (O)
Hydrogen (H)
Nitrogen (N)
Carbon (C)


Smallest particle of an element that still has all the properties of that element

3 Subatomic particles


Proton Information

Has a positive charge
Has a mass of 1
Found in the nucleus

Neutron Information

Has a neutral/no charge
Has a mass of 1
Found in the nucleus

Electron Information

Has a negative charge
Has a mass of 1/1840
Found in energy levels surrounding the nucleus


Center of an atom; contains protons & neutrons

Atomic number

Tells the number of protons in an atom

Atomic mass

Tells the number of protons PLUS neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

How many electrons can the first (K) electron energy level hold?


How many electrons can the rest (L-Q)of the energy levels in an atom hold?



Substances made up of two or more elements in definite proportions


Smallest unit of a compound that still has the properties of that compound


When looking at a chemical formula, this follows the symbol and tells the number of atoms of each element in the compound


When looking at a chemical formula, this number comes before the formula and tells the number of molecules

Covalent bond

When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Ionic bond

When atoms give or take electrons

Positive ions

The name given to atoms that lose electrons

Negative ions

The name given to atoms that gain electrons


The ability to do work

Kinetic energy

Energy in motion

Potential energy

Energy that is stored up

Three states of matter


Activation energy

The amount of energy needed to start a reaction

3 Characteristics of Enzymes

They are proteins
There are thousands of different ones
They are very specific

How enzymes work

Enzymes work on substances called substrates
Substrates fit into a place on the enzyme called the active site

Label the parts of enzyme activity


A uniform mixture of one or more substances within another substance


Substance that is dissolved in a solution


Substance that does the dissolving in a solution


The universal solvent


A solution in which no more solutes can be dissolved


Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached





Concentration gradient

Difference between the numbers of one type of molecule in two adjacent areas


Movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane

Semi-permeable membrane

Allows some ions or molecules to pass through and others not too




to pass through

Draw a pH scale and label the acids, bases, and neutral areas with all the proper numbers (pH)

0-under 7 is acidic
7 is neutral
Above 7-14 is basic (alkaline)


Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in pH

How to properly read the Periodic Table

This is an example of a question that will be on the test.
Name of element - Krypton
Element symbol - Kr
Atomic number - 36
# of protons - 36 (same as Atomic #)
# of electrons - 36 (same as proton #)
Atomic mass - 84 (rounded up)
# of neutrons - 48 (Atomic mass MINUS Atomic number)

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