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diffusion

the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lesser concentration

added that all cells come from pre existing cells

Rudolph Virchow

penicilin

antibiotic that prevents peptidoglycan cell wall from forming (prokaryotic)

capsule

an organized layer of polysaccharides firmly attached to cell wall (prokaryotic)

antiphagocytic, allows bacteria to stick, prevents drying out

3 functions of capsule (prokaryotic)

antiphagocytic

can't be "eaten". too greasy (prokaryotic)

prevent cell from bursting

function of peptidoglycan cell wall (prokaryotic)

attachment

function of pili/fimbriae (prokaryotic)

erythomycin

substance put in newborns' eyes to prevent blindness from gonococcus

nucleoid region

area of the prokaryotic cell in which the single, circular bacterial chromosome is found

nucleus

controls everything that goes on in cell

vacuoles

store food, water, waste, etc.

endoplasmic reticulum

elaborate transportation network through which proteins and lipids pass

golgi body

processes, packages, and exports proteins

ribosomes

make proteins

mitochondrion

produce energy for cells

cell membrane

protects the cell, regulates molecular traffic

chloroplast

contains pigments which absorb visible light

cytoplasm

glycolysis occurs in the

mitochondrial matrix

kreb cycle occurs in the

inner membrane

electron transport chain occurs on the

cristae

folding of inner membrane

golgi apparatus

processes, packages, and exports proteins and lipids

ribosome

function is to make proteins. found in all living cells

streptomycin

antibiotic that targets bacterial ribosomes

facilitated diffusion

type of diffusion where a protein carrier helps with the movement of substances. No ATP required

endocytosis

the cell takes in a large amount of a substance

phagocytosis

cell eating

pinocytosis

cell drinking

exocytosis

the cell exports a large amount of a substance

osmosis

special type of diffusion involving water and a membrane.

glycolysis, kreb cycle, electron transport chain

3 steps in cellular respiration

alcoholic fermentation

pyruvate is converted into ethanol and Co2. No ATP generated. Purpose is to regenerate NAD+

active transport

not a type of diffusion. at some point substances move against the concentration gradient. (keep going after equilibrium)

protein carrier

active transport requires a _______

coenzyme A

guide picked up by acetyl when pyruvate is broken down

decarboxylation

taking away CO2 from pyruvate and making acetyl group

citric acid cycle

kreb cycle also called

ATP synthase

protein that hydrogen ions are funneled through

isotonic

animal cells prefer an _____ environment

lysis

in a hypotonic environment, animal cells will undergo _____

crenation

in a hypertonic environment, animal cells will undergo _____

cellular respiration

the process by which cells get ATP from glucose

2 ATP

net gain from glycolysis per glucose

38 ATP

there is enough energy in glucose to give ______

2 ATP

added to destabilize glucose during glycolysis

2 Pyruvate

End result of glycolysis

lactic acid fermentation

occurs in muscle cells that don't have enough oxygen to break down pyruvate. no ATP generated

1 ATP

____ generated per pyruvate. 2 per glucose

acetyl group, 2 Co2

2 carbons enter kreb cycle as _____ and 2 leave as ______

schleiden and schwann

proposed the cell theory

well defined nucleus

prokaryotic cells lack a ________

organelles

prokaryotic cells lack membrane bound ________

peptidoglycan

prokaryotic cells have a ________ cell wall

binary fission

prokaryotic cells divide by ______. (divide every 20 minutes)

spontaneous generation

states that life can spontaneously emerge from nonlife

nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus, histones

4 structure of nucleus

hydrolytic

digestive enzyme

autolysis

selective cell death

lysosome

made by golgi apparatus. contains hydrolytic enzymes

granum

stack of thylakoids

absorb light

function of thylakoid

stroma

fluid in chloroplast

rough ER

has ribosomes, makes proteins usually for export (like antibodies)

smooth ER

no ribosomes. makes lipids

transmembrane, instrinsic, integral

3 terms for protein that spans whole membrane

extrinsic, peripheral

2 terms for protein that takes up half of membrane

glycoproteins

involved in cell to cell communication

cell recognition, adhesion, signal transduction

3 functions of glycoproteins

oxygen

terminal electron acceptor

nadh, fadh2

pass electrons off to carriers on the electron transport chin

electron transport chain

series of special proteins on the inner mitochondrial membrane

NAG and NAM

peptidoglycan cell wall is made of

c6h12o6 + o2 = co2 +h2o + atp

formula for cellular respiration

nadh dehydrogenase, ubiquinone, cytochrome b-c1, cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase, atp synthase

proteins in electron transport chain

intermembrane space

reservoir of h+

small nonpolar molecules

easily pass through pores in membrane

larger lipid soluble molecules

dissolve through lipid bilayer (steroids)

polar molecules and ions

require a special protein gate

turgid

plant cells in a hypotonic environment

flaccid

plant cells in a isotonic environment

plasmolysed

plant cells in a hypertonic environment

2

get _ nadh during glycolysis

oxygen

aerobic respiration requires

mitochondrion

aerobic respiration occurs in the

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