ED Psych exam #2

Created by Angelofrock09 

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We understand new things in the context of things we already know,

and most of what we know is concrete.

Students understand new ideas

by relating them to old ideas

One principle in the usefulness of analogies; they help us understand something new

by relating it to something we already know about.

Understanding new ideas is mostly a matter of getting the right old ideas into working memory and then rearranging them

making comparisons we hadn't before, or thinking about a feature we had previously ignored.

A teacher must ensure that the right ideas from the student's long term memory

are pulled up and put into working memory.

Even when students "understand" there are really degrees of comprehension. One student's understanding can be shallow

while another's is deep.

Even if students understand in the classroom,

this knowledge may not transfer well to the world outside the classroom

Rote knowledge:

You know the information...but you have no understanding of the material

Shallow knowledge:

Students have some understanding of the material but their understanding is limited.If knowledge is shallow...processing stops there

Deep knowledge:

A student with deep knowledge knows more about the subject and the pieces of knowledge are more richly interconnected.
It allows the student to apply the knowledge in many different contexts to talk about it in different ways, to imagine how the system as a whole would change if one part of it changed and so forth.
Students with deep knowledge can predict how the machine would operate if one part were to be changed.

Deep Structure

Deep structure means requiring the same steps for solving a problem.

Our minds assume that new things we read

(or hear) will be related to what we've just read (or heard).

Our cognitive system is always struggling to make sense of what we're reading or hearing to find relevant background knowledge that will

help us interpret the words, phrases, and sentences.

Deep structure of a problem is not obvious.

You must understand how all parts of the problems relate to one another, and you must know which parts are important and which are not.

When a problem has lots of components and lots of steps in its solution,

it more often happens that transfer is hampered by difficulty in mapping from a solved problem to the new one.

Knowledge in the cognitive perspective include both subject-specific understandings

(math, history, soccer)

general cognitive abilities

(planning, solving problems & comprehending language)

Sensory Memory

initial process that transforms incoming stimuli into information

Cognitive Views of Memory

Very large, can take more information than we can handle
Perception and attention are critical
Perception-detecting a stimulus & assigning meaning to it
Attention- selective, one cognitively demanding task at a time

Perception

detecting a stimulus & assigning meaning to it
Attention- selective, one cognitively demanding task at a time

Working Memory -

What you are thinking about at the moment
Short-term memory-immediate memory for new information 15-20 seconds

Working memory Control executive

controls attention the "worker" of working memory

Working memory Phonological loop

Verbal & acoustical information

Working memory Visual Sketchpad

Visual and spatial information

Episodic Buffer

Info from Pholonogical Loop, Visuorspatial sketchpad & long term create representives

Three Kinds of Cognitive Load: Intrinsic Cognitive Load

Unavoidable
Amount of cognitive processing required to figure out the material

Three kinds of cognitive load:Extraneous

Avoidable
Cognitive capacity you use to deal with problems not related to learning the task

Three kinds of cognitive load:

Deep processing of relevant information-organizing & integrating the material with what you already know and forming new understandings

Long-Term Memory:Declarative
(factual information)

General Knowledge- Hours the library is open
Rules of grammar. Domain-Specific Knowledge
The definition of "hypotenuse"
The lines of the poem "The Raven

Long-Term Memory:Procedural
(how to do something)

General Knowledge- How to use your cell phone
How to drive. How to solve an oxidation-reduction equation
How to throw a pot on a potter's wheel

Long-Term Memory: Conditional
(when to do something)

General Knowledge: When to give up and try another approach When to skim & when to read carefully. Domain-Specific Knowledge- When to use the formula for calculating volume.When to rush the net in tennis

Explicit

concious

implicit

unconcious

Long term memory explicit

Episodic Memory (your own experiences)
Semantic Memory (facts, general knowledge)

Long term implicit

Classical conditioning effects (emotional reactions)
Procedural memory (motor skills, habits)
Priming (implicit activation of concepts in long-term memory)
(remembering numbers to tell time)

Episodic Memory

(your own experiences) Memory for information tied to a place, time, events

Semantic Memory

(facts, general knowledge) Memory for meaning - words, facts, theories and concepts

Classical conditioning effects

(emotional reactions)Memories that you are unaware of that make you have a reaction

Procedural memory

(motor skills, habits)Memory for how to perform tasks, skills or habit

Priming

(implicit activation of concepts in long-term memory)
(remembering numbers to tell time)Activation of information that is in long-term memory through out-of-awareness process

Long term- Elaboration

adding meaning to new information by connecting with already existing knowledge

Long term- Organization

structure, tables, chunking

Long term-Imagery

visually & verbally is easiest -dual coding

Long term-Context

physical and emotional context - places, rooms, moods, who is with you- are learned along with other information

Meaningful

make natural use of old information to help students understand new information through examples or analogies

Mnemonics

systematic procedures for improving memory

Rote Memorization

distributed practice gives time for deeper processing and strengthens the connections in the neural network of the brain

Cognitive

rely on declarative knowledge & general problem-solving strategies to accomplish our goal

Associative

individual steps of a procedure are combined or chunked into larger units

Autonomous

whole procedures can be accomplished without much attention

Domain Specific Strategies:

Consciously applied skills that organize thoughts & actions to reach a goal.

Thus your memory is not a product of what you want to remember or what you try to reember,

it's a product of what you think about.

Memory is

the residue of thought

Students remember some things

and forget other things

working memory is

where you keep things"in mind," the location of consciousness.

Information can enter working memory not only from the enviornment but

also from long term memory

Information no longer resides in long term memory

it has been forgotten

Look at pg 55

Look at figure 1

Things that create an emotional reaction will be better remembered

but emotion is not necessary for learning

memory

is the residue of thought

For material to be learned(that ism to end up in long term memory)

it must reside for some period in working memory-that is, a student must pay attention to it.

how the student thinks of the experience

completely determines what will end up in long-term memory

Storytelling is

a powerful tool to use to help students retain information.

The four C's

Causality-events are causally related to one another.
Conflict- a story has a main character pursuing a goal but he or she is unable to reach that goal.
Complications- Sub problems that arise from the main goal.
Character-good stories have strong interesting character.

Causality-

-events are causally related to one another

Conflict-

a story has a main character pursuing a goal but he or she is unable to reach that goal.

Complications

Sub problems that arise from the main goal.

Character

good stories have strong interesting character.

Review Each lesson plan in terms of

what the student is likely to think about

Think Carefully

about attention grabbers

Design Assignments so that students will

unavoidably think about meaning

Don't be afraid

to use Mnemonics(like chanting rhymes of the stage capitals)

People are generally aware of their social class

That it the perceive that some groups are above them in social class and some are below

classism

(like racism and sexism) belieivng thtat tey are "better" than members of lower soical class.

Socioeconomic status SES

Relative standing in society based on income, power background and prestige.

Look at Pg. 212

Table 6.1

Poor students deal with more

stress

Resistance culture

Group values and beliefs about refusing to adopt the behaviors and attitudes of the majority culture.

Tracking

Assignment to different classes and academic experiences based on achievement.

Gender Identity

The sense of self as male or female as well as the belief one has about gender roles and attributes.

Sexual Identetiy

A complex of beliefs about gender roles and sexual oreintations

Gender roles

are expectation of how males and females should behave

Gender schemes

Organized cognitive structures that include gender-related information that influences how children think and behave.

According to the gender schema theory

children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and understand their perception about the world.

Gender biases

Different views of males and females often favoring one gender over the other.

Look at pg. 227

Look at figure 6.6

Learning strategies

A special kind of procedural knowledge -knowing how to approach learning tasks.

Look at pg. 322

Table 9.1

Concept maps

A drawing that charts the relationship among ideas.

Production deficiency

Students learn problem-solving strategies, but do not apply them when they could or should

LINCS Vocabulary Strategy

A strategy that uses stories and imagery to help students learn how to identify, organize, define and remember words and their meanings.

Problem

Any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find means to do so.

Problem solving

Creating new solutions for problems

Domain knowledge

knowledge that is particular to field

Creativity

Imaginative, original thinking, or problem solving

Domain-relevant skills

talents and competences that are valuable for working in the domain

Creatively-relevant processes

includes work habits and personality traits such as working 10-hour days to write and rewrite stories

Intrinsic task motivation

deep curiosity and fascination with task

Divergent thinking

Coming up with many possible solutionns

Convergent thinking

Narrowing possibilities to a single answer.

Restructuring

Conceiving of a problem in a new or different way

Insight

Sudden realization of a solution

Divergent thinking

Coming up with many possible solutions

Convergent thinking

Narrowing possibilities to a single answer

Restructuring

Conceiving of a problem in a new or different way

Insight

sudden realization of a solution

Brainstorming

Generating ideas without stopping to evaluate them

Look at pg 343.

Look at guidelines

Transfer

Influence of previously learned material on new material, the production (not reproductive) uses cognitive tools and motivation

Look at pg 347

Table 9.4

Overlearning

Practicing a skill past the point of mastery

Look at pg 350

Look at summary Learning strategies pp.321-328

Look at pg 350

Look at summary Problem solving pp. 328-329

Look at pg 351

Creativity and problem solving pp.339-343

Look at pg 351

Teaching for Transfer pp.346-350

Look at pg. 240

Economic and social class differences pp. 211-216

Look at pg. 240

Gender in teaching and learning pp.224-229

Look at pg. 109

Brofendreener: The social context for develop pp. 75-87

Look pg 161-163

Summary

Greg ponders over his math problem. He looks, frowns, and several minutes passes as he continues to study and shuffle his papers. All at once, he smiles, picks up his pencil, and writes down the correct answer. The suddenness of Greg's solution best exemplifies:
a.)transfer
b.)insight
c.)functional fixedness
problem representation

b.)insight

The main difficulty that occurs when students are too quick to decide what a problems asks is that they may...
become too reflective
a.)experience overgeneralization
b.)activate an inappropriate schema
C.)rely on heuristics instead of algorithms to solve it

activate an inappropriate schema

The main difficulty that occurs when students are too quick to decide what a problems asks is that they may...
a.)become too reflective
b.)experience overgeneralization
c.)activate an inappropriate schema
d.)rely on heuristics instead of algorithms to solve it

c.)activate an inappropriate schema

In order to encourage student creativity, teachers are advised to
a.)work on increasing the speed with which students c.)can identify solutions to a problem
c.)enhance each student's reliance on authorities for response accuracy
d.)promote convergent thinking and problem-solving skills
e.)reinforce unusual solutions, even if the product is not perfect

e.)reinforce unusual solutions, even if the product is not perfect

Expert teachers don't have to think as hard a beginning teachers due to an ability to
a.)recognize patterns in problems
b.)use logical reasoning
c.)memorize many details
d.)access short-term memory

A.) recognize patters in problems

A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n)
a.)algorithm
b.)theorem
c.)heuristic
d.)working-backward strategy

a.) algorithm

Frank was supposed to push three wheelbarrows back to the barn, and he wasn't relishing the idea of three trips. Then in a flash he reorganized the problem. He loaded two wheelbarrows into the third wheelbarrow and made one trip. In doing this he demonstrated
a.)functional fixedness
b.)insight
c.)flexibility
d.)response set

b.) insight

The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of
a.)top-down processing
b.) heuristic
c.)patterning
d.)metacognition

b.) Heuristic

Learning Latin to improve basic intelligence would possibly be ineffective due to
a.)the impracticality of disciplining mental processes
b.)specific rather than general transferring taking place
c.)the irrelevance of the subject
d.)general rather than specific transferring taking place

b.) specific rather than general transferring taking place

Jennifer had her stomach pumped after she ingested part of an unknown compound in chemistry class. "But at home I always taste things to find out whether they're sugar or salt," she said. Jennifer is a victim of
a.)intuitive thinking
b.)negative transfer
c.)positive transfer
d.)improper coding

b.)negative transfer

Which of the following statements is true?
a.)Children in second grade are too young to engage in self-reflection.
b.)Students' metacognitive skills are fixed because they are aligned to their learning style.
c.)Very young children are better metacognitive thinkers than adolescents.
d.)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.

d.)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.

Cheryl gets good grades in her language class but uses incorrect grammar and punctuation in other classes. This situation suggests a problem with
a.)integration
b.)transfer
c.)assimilation
d.)encoding

b.) Transfer

Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of heuristic?
a.)exhaustive
b.)domain specific
c.)analogical thinking
d.)guaranteed solution

c.)analogical thinking

Studies of expertise have discovered that chess masters are superior to non-expert players in
a.)domain knowledge
b.)conscious analytical thought
c.)random chess pattern recognition
d.)recognition of meaningful chess patterns

d.)recognition of meaningful chess patterns

One of the conditions for using good learning strategies is that students must
a.)value and care about learning
b.)have speed of learning
c.)understand that ability is more important than effort
d.)be able to work independently

a.)value and care about learning

Before pulling off the bank job, Bugsy and his gang recited the steps of the operation. "Do we hafta, Bugsy?" complained Willy. "We must have been over them steps fifty times already." Bugsy is aware of the benefits of
a.)overlearning
b.)general transfer
c.)modeling
d.)making learning meaningful

a.)overlearning

Creativity is thought to be associated directly with what type of thinking?
a.)divergent thinking
b.)ntuitive
c.)convergent
d.)deductive reasoning

a.)divergent thinking

Which one of the following illustrates the best example of creative behavior?
A.)Billy uses and established a method to solve an algebraic equation on a test.
B.)Calita uses an encyclopedia to find the significance of the date July 4, 1776.
C.)Cheryl generates a list of solutions for the recycling program.
D.)Jack pours a solution of acid into a beaker of water in the chemistry lab.

C.)Cheryl generates a list of solutions for the recycling program.

Use of the READS method would probably have questionable benefits for
a.)Children in early elementary school
b.)High school students
c)Improving recall of information from the text
d.)Encouraging a distributed practice schedule

a.)Children in early elementary school

Which one of the following is the first step in the KWL reading strategy?
a.)Asking "which information will most likely be on the test?"
b.)Asking "what do I want to know?"
c.)Asking "what do I already know about this subject?"
d.)Asking "what have I been learning?"

c.)Asking "what do I already know about this subject?"

Means-ends analysis in problem solving involves
a.)Distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals
b.)Using analogical reasoning and heuristics
c.)Limiting the search for solutions having something in common with the problem
d.)Beginning at the goal and moving backward to the unsolved initial problem

a.)Distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals

Identifying a particular learning style of a given ethnic group:

a.)can become just one more basis for stereotyping.
b.)can help to provide the basis for grouping similar individuals.
c.)helps teachers to prejudge how a student will learn best.
d.)is helpful because every individual in a group shares the same learning style.

can become just one more basis for stereotyping.

When students are in situations that provoke stereotype threat, they tend to:
a,)adopt performance-avoidance goals to avoid feelings of failure.
b.)work harder to disprove the stereotype.
c.)accept that the stereotype is true.

a,)adopt performance-avoidance goals to avoid feelings of failure.

When we listen to music and interpret the sounds or "make meaning of the stimuli," we are engaging in the process of:
a.)perception.
b.)top-down processing.
c.)working memory.
d.)learning.

a.)perception.

Our ability to take in, store, and use information is referred to as:
a.)sensory memory.
b.)information processing.
c.)perception.
d.)bottom-up processing.

b.)information processing.

Archimedes is instructed to determine whether a beautifully crafted crown is composed of pure gold, without cutting the crown. One day, as Archimedes sits down in his bathtub, he notices that, as always, a certain amount of water is displaced. By applying the general schema that "objects of different densities displace different amounts of water," he solves the crown problem. Archimedes' application of his previous knowledge to a new domain might be described most accurately as:

a.)chunking.
b.)dual coding.
c.)elaboration.
d.)limited capacity.

c.)elaboration.

Sam reads a story about a family going to a fast-food restaurant for lunch. The story never mentions that the family members order and pay for their meals at the counter before they sit down. Nevertheless, Sam assumes that they do these things. How can you best explain what Sam does?
a.)Sam has elaborated on the story drawing on a previous script he had constructed about fast-food restaurants
b.)Sam is the victim of reconstruction error.
c.)Sam has a confirmation bias
d.)Sam is using a mnemonic technique.

a.)Sam has elaborated on the story drawing on a previous script he had constructed about fast-food restaurants

Three of the following statements are consistent with the textbook's recommendations for teaching learning and metacognitive strategies. Which statement is not?
a.)Students should have lots of practice applying their new strategies.
b.)Encourage students to become quick at selecting and using appropriate strategies.
c.)Explain how, when, and where to use learning strategies most effectively.
d.)Encourage students to engage in self-monitoring of their strategy use.

b.)Encourage students to become quick at selecting and using appropriate strategies.

A general strategy used in attempting to solve problems is called:
a.)means-end analysis.
b.)a heuristic.
c.)analogical reasoning.
d.)an algorithm.

b.)a heuristic.

In order to facilitate creative thinking, teachers should:
a.)limit fantasy thinking because it is not realistic.
b.)create an autonomous and challenging learning environment.
c.)teach general strategies for increasing creativity.
d.)limit brainstorming activities.

b.)create an autonomous and challenging learning environment.

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