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thin

troponin is part of the ______ myofilament.

ATP, H2O, and CO2

list the 3 by-products of aerobic metabolism.

thick; thin

smooth muscle has more ______ filaments than _____ filaments.

multiunit smooth muscle

which muscle type has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres, and rare gap junctions?

gene

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin _____. Without a normal copy of DNA for transcription, there can never be a normal protein translated.

dehydration synthesis

What is the type of chemical reaction used to rebuild ADP into ATP?

pyruvic

during the "rest & recovery" stage, when oxygen is available, lactic acid is converted back to _______ acid.

white fast twitch fibers

Which type of muscle fiber has a large quantity of glycogen and mainly uses glycolysis to synthesize ATP?

terminal cisternae

The ________ ________ are the enlarged ends of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

thick

_______ filaments are composed of myosin.

stress-relaxation response

What special feature of smooth muscle allows it to stretch without immediately resulting in a strong contraction?

fasicles

Skeletal muscle cells are grouped into bundles called __________.

acetylcholine

Synaptic vesicles at the neuromuscular junction contain __________.

sarcolemma

ACh receptors are found mainly in the __________.

chemically gated Na+-K+ channels

Acetylcholine receptors are best characterized as what type of channel?

the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and the amount actually used

What does excess postexercise oxygen consumption represent?

electrical; chemical; electrical

generating and AP on the muscle membrane involves the transfer of info from an _________ signal (down the neuron), to a ________ signal (at the NMJ), back to an ________ signal (depolarization of the sarcolemma).

true

TRUE or FALSE: high precision muscles (voice box, eye, fingers) have fewer muscle fibers per neuron.

true

TRUE or FALSE: a muscle fiber must fully contract. It cannot partially contract.

true

TRUE or FALSE: when a single motor unit is recruited to contract, all the muscle fibers in that motor unit must all contract at the same time.

refractory

temporary loss of excitability is called the ________ period.

twitch

a _______ is recorded when a stimulus that results in contraction (force) of a single muscle fiber is measured over a very brief millisecond time frame.

frequency; strength

response to stimulation are graded by ________ and ______.

spinal reflexes

what upkeeps muscle tone?

isotonic

in _________ contractions the load is moved.

concentric

picking up a book is an example of a ________ contraction.

eccentric

lowering a book is an example of a __________ contraction.

isometric

the example of dr. foster trying to lift the podium is an example of a ________ contraction.

36

aerobic respiration produces how many ATP per molecule of glucose.

1.) stored glycogen 2.) blood glucose 3.) pyruvic acid 4.) fatty acids

list the fuels of the aerobic pathway and in what order they are used.

true

TRUE or FALSE: muscle glycogen is only for muscle. It can't be taken from muscle when you're starving.

ionic; SR

the physiological inability to contract can be caused by _____ imbalances and damages to the _____.

true

TRUE or FALSE: the majority of energy (60%) given off by muscle is released as heat

autorythmic

smooth muscle is __________ meaning it is under involuntary control.

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