Visceral Motor Systems

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control of visceral functions

What is the primary function of the ANS?

feedback system

In addition to an efferent motor system, the ANS also uses sensory fibers to function as a __________?

cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, grandular epithelium

What are the target tissues of the ANS?

light, temperature, stress

The ANS can have adaptive responses to stimuli such as?

homeostasis

The ANS maintenance of the internal environment in response to changes in the internal and external environment is known as?

somatic

refers to structures associated with the body wall or extremities.

visceral

refers to structures associated with the internal organs

cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands

General Visceral Efferent neurons provide motor innervation to?

skeletal muscle derived from branchiomeres

Special Visceral Efferent neurons provide voluntary motor innervation to?

pain and distension from mucous membranes, glands, blood vessels

General Visceral Afferent neurons deliver sensory information regarding?

olfactory and gustation

Special Visceral Afferent neurons deliver sensory information from what areas?

thoracolumbar

In the basic organization of the ANS, the sympathetic division is found in what area?

craniosacral

In the basic organization of the ANS, the parasympathetic division is found in what area?

wall of the GI tract

In the basic organization of the ANS the Enteric division is found where?

short, long

pre-ganglionic axons in the sympathetic division are (short/long), While the post-ganglionic axons are (short,long)?

long, short

pre-ganglionic axons in the parasympathetic division are (short/long), while the post-ganglionic axons are (short/long)?

close to vertebrae

Where is the ganglion located in the sympathetic division?

close to the organ it innervates

Where is the ganglion located in the parasympathetic division?

1st neuron (preganglionic cell) located in the CNS and terminates in a ganglion in the periphery. 2nd neuron (postganglionic cell) located in the PNS

Describe the Two Neuron System?

diffuse, non-discrete way

Axon terminals end in varicosities, with no distinct neuromuscular junction. This causes the neurotransmitter to be released how?

T1-L3

The interomediallateral column of the spinal cord is found between what levels?

CNS nucleus or IML column

Preganglionic sympathetic neuron cell bodies are found where?

cranial nerve nuclei and sacral spinal cord S2-S4

Preganglionic parasympathetic neuron cell bodies are found where?

autonomic ganglion in PNS

Postganglionic neuron cell bodies are found where?

Regulates activity of tissues/organs such as sweat glands and smooth muscle of blood vessels/hair follicles

What is the function of the sympathetic division of the ANS?

adrenal gland

The sympathetic division works with what gland to elicit the "fight/flight" response?

epinephrine and norepinephrine, epinephrine

The adrenal gland releases what? Which is more potent?

promote production of energy for muscular work and shut down organs

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are designed to do what?

increase in HR, BP and force of ventricular contraction

What effect does the sympathetic division have on cardiac muscle?

dilate or constrict, depending on function

What effect does the sympathetic division have on blood vessels?

decreased motility and secretions

What effect does the sympathetic division have on the GI tract?

increases

The sympathetic division _________ basal metabolic rate

ejaculation

What important function does the sympathetic division stimulate in the sex organs?

slow deactivation of norepinephrine, systemic distribution of nor/epinephrine, considerable degree of divergence/convergence

The sympathetic division exerts its influences over widespread body regions for sustained periods of time due to?

white rami

What conveys preganglionic fibers from the ventral rami to the paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic chains in the sympathetic division?

paravertebral ganglia

bilateral series of interconnected ganglia running from the skull to the coccyx that connects to ventral rami of spinal nerves

Synapse with postganglionic cells in the paravertebral ganglia

Sympathetic Preganglionic axons have 3 possible terminations. The first is?

continue through paravertebral ganglia without synapsing, contributing to a splanchnic nerve, then synapsing with postganglionic cells in a prevertebral ganglia.

Sympathetic Preganglionic axons have 3 possible terminations. The second is?

continue through paravertebral chain without synapsing, contribute to splanchnic nerve, pass through celiac ganglion to adrenal medulla, synapse with chromaffin cells

Sympathetic Preganglionic axons have 3 possible terminations. the third is?

chromaffin cells

What type of cells are found in the adrenal medulla?

release epinephrine and norepinephrine into the circulatory system

What is the function of chromaffin cells?

spinal nerves or cervical and thoracic cardiac/pulmonary nerves

What are the two possible destinations for sympathetic postganglionic neurons?

gray rami

sympathetic postganglionic neurons join spinal nerves via what?

blood vessels, glands and arrector pili muscles in the body wall and extremities

sympathetic postganglionic fibers contributing to spinal nerves supply what?

vascular smooth muscle of the esophagus, heart and lungs

cervical and thoracic cardiac/pulmonary nerves supply what structures?

perivascular plexuses

postganglionic fibers from prevertebral ganglia form what?

perivascular plexuses

What structures supply the same visceral targets as the corresponding branch of the aorta?

abdominal aorta and its large branches

prevertebral - sympathetic ganglia are associated with what?

splanchnic nerves

What conveys preganglionic fibers from the paravertebral ganglia to the prevertebral ganglia?

superior cervical, C1-4

What ganglia innervates the head, neck and heart? Fusion of which ganglia?

middle cervical, C5-6

What ganglia innervates the heart and esophagus? Fusion of which ganglia?

inferior cervical, C7-8

What ganglia innervates the esophagus, lungs and heart? Fusion of which ganglia?

acetylcholine + 1 or more peptides

What is the neurotransmitter used between preganglionic to postganglionic neurons?

cholinergic nicotinic (fast EPSPs) and Peptide (slow EPSPs)

What are the two receptors between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons?

metabolic breakdown of acetylcholinesterase

re-uptake of the neurotransmitter between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons is done through what?

norepinephrine

what is the neurotransmitter used between postganglionic nuerons and the target location in the sympathetic division?

vasoconstriction of smooth muscle

Alpha 1 receptors primarily do what?

opposes alpha 1 receptors, balances out vasoconstriction

Alpha 2 receptors primarily do what?

increase HR

Beta 1 receptors primarily do what?

vasodilation of smooth muscle

Beta 2 receptors primarily do what?

anti-arrythmics

Beta blockers are used as what?

dilate bronchi

beta 2 agonists are used to what?

conservation/restoration of body resources

what is the primary function of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

viscera of the head and body cavities

What is the main target of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

no, blood vessels in the face

does the parasympathetic division innervate viscera in the bodywall and limbs? What is the exception?

CN 3, 7, 9 10

What cranial nerves supply GVE innervation to the head, thorax and most abdominal viscera?

3 sacral spinal nerves

GVE innervation to the rest of the abdomen and pelvic viscera is done by what?

rapid reuptake of acetylcholine, limited divergence, preganglionic to postganglionic ratio 1:1

What allows parasympathetic division to respond to a specific stimulus in localized and descrete regions for short durations?

Edinger Westfall nucleus

What is the preganglionic cell body for CN 3?

ciliary ganglion

What is the postganglionic cell body for CN 3?

short ciliary nerves

What is the postganglionic axon for CN 3?

ciliary muscles for lens accomodation, sphincter pupillae for pupil constriction

What are the targets and effects of the postganglionic axon from CN 3?

superior salivatory nucleus

What is the preganglionic cell body for CN 7?

pterygopalatine nucleus

What is the postganglionic cell body for CN 7?

branches of the trigeminal nerve

What is the postganglionic axon for CN 7?

glands of the nose and palate, lacrimal gland

What are the targets of the postganglionic axon from CN 7?

submandibular ganglion

What is another postganglionic cell body for CN 7?

submandibular, sublingual and other small glands of the oral cavity

What are the targets of postganglionic axons coming from the submandibular ganglion?

inferior salivatory nucleus

What is the preganglionic cell body for CN 9?

Otic ganglion

What is the postganglionic cell body for CN 9?

branches of trigeminal nerve

What are the postganglionic axons for CN 9?

increase secretion of parotid gland

What is the target and function of postganglionic axons from CN 9?

dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and nucleus ambiguus

What are the preganglionic cell bodies for CN 10?

ganglia in or on walls of viscera

What are the postganglionic cell bodies for CN 10?

heart and great vessels, respiratory system, GI tract

What are the target tissues for postganglionic axons of CN 10?

decrease HR, bronchial constriction, increase blood flow to gut, increase peristalsis and secretion

What are the effects of the postganglionic axons of CN 10?

sacral spinal cord

Where are the preganglionic cell bodies for the pelvic nerve?

ganglia in or on walls of viscera

Where are the postganglionic cell bodies for the pelvic nerve?

GI tract, reproductive organs, urinary bladder

What are the target tissues of the pelvic nerve?

acetylcholine + 1 or more peptides

What is the neurotransmitter used between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division?

Cholinergic nicotinic receptors (fast EPSPs) and peptide receptors (slow EPSPs)

What are the receptors between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division?

metabolic breakdown by acetylcholinesterase

Re-uptake of the neurotransmitter between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division is done by what?

acetylcholine + 1 or more peptides

What is the neurotransmitter used between postganglionic neurons and the target in the parasympathetic division?

cholinergic muscarinic receptors

What are the receptors used between postganglionic neurons and the target in the parasympathetic division?

M2, slow

What type of cholinergic muscarinic receptor is used in cardiac muscle? fast or slow IPSPs?

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