Vitamin D (sources)
made by skin. Found in: Salmon, shrimp, Cod, liver oil, Tuna, Eel, herring, fortified cereal, milk.
Limitation of skin formation of vitamin D
Age, Sunscreen/sunblock, darker skin tones, geographic location, season.
sunlight requirements for formation of Vitamin D
sunlight 2-3 times a week for 10-15 minutes.
Vitamin D (storage)
stored in fat or goes back to liver. Liver can make it inactive and it can circulate in blood stream for weeks. Small amount excreted in urine and bile.
Vitamin D (transportation)
absorbed with dietary fat in small intestines or made in the body. Liver makes it inactive. Kidney's make it calcitriol (active form).
Vitamin D (kidney function)
with regulation from parathyriod hormone makes active form of calcitriol (hormone) induces vitamin D function.
Functions of vitamin D
Bone Health. aid in increasing absorption of food. Aid releasing calcium from bone or depositing calcium by the kidneys
Deficiency of Vitamin D
Rickets (improper bone formation), Osteomalacia (poorly formed new bone)
vitamin D deficiencty. (Children)improper bone formation
poorly formed new bone (weak or soft bone)
Vitamin D (Toxicity)
Due to dietary supplements. Risk over absorption of Calcium. (Hypercalcemia- high levels of calcium in the blood)
high levels of calcium in blood due to vitamin D toxicity
Vitamin D (UL)
50 micrograms a day
Vitamin E (sources)
vegtable oil, margarine, shortening, wheat germ, whole grains, seeds, nuts (animal fats are NOT good sources)
Vitamin E (transportation)
from liver via lipoproteins (very low lipoproteins). Excreted in bile, urine, and skin.
Vitamin E (storage)
in adipose tissue
Vitamin E (function)
antioxidant- stops damage done by free radicals (because it donates an electron to the free radicals), reduces oxidative stress
Vitamin E (deficiencies)
hemolytic enemia, but are rare
vitamin E deficiency. Red blood cells are broken down faster than they can be replaced.
Vitamin E (toxicity)
interfere with vitamin K (needed for blood clotting). May cause hemorrhaging
Vitamin E (UL)
1000 mg/ natural source. 1,100/synthetic source
Vitamin K (sources)
Green vegtables: brocolli, Kale, green beans, soybean, olive, canola
Vitamin K (body manufactured)
in the GI by bacteria, manaquinones (10% absorbed)
Vitamin K (Excretion)
primarily in bile, small amount in urine
Vitamin K (function)
(clotting and bones) need in synthesis of blood clotting factors. synthesis of protein that bind calcium
Vitamin K (deficiency risk)
Antibiotic therapy (disrupts making of vit by bacteria in colon). Fat free diet (absorption problem). Hemorrhagic disease of newborns (shot at birth)
vitamin K deficiency in new borns (given shot at birth)
vitamin K (toxicity)
jaudice (caused by high doses of synthetic form)
Vitamin K (UL)
vitamin/mineral supplementation (things to look for)
no more than 10% of daily value (should not exceed UL's). USP (United States Pharmacopeia) Certification.