AP US History Chapter 26 and 27

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Federal Farm Board (Agriculture Marketing Act 1929)

created in 1929, before the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, 1929, but its powers were later enlarged to meet the economic crisis farmers faced during the Great Depression. It was established by the Agricultural Marketing Act to stabilize prices and to promote the sale of agricultural products; would help farmers stabilize prices by holding surplus grain and cotton in storage.

Emergency Committee for Employment, 1930

...

Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916

a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural, family farmers. It did so by creating a federal farm loan board, twelve regional farm loan banks and tens of farm loan associations. The act was signed into law by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson.

Federal Emergency Relief Act, 1932

created Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) in 1932

Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1932

created by Hoover in 1932; gave federal money to businesses to rebuild economy

Direct relief

refers to relief that comes from the federal government to citizens (?)

Voluntarism

the use of, or reliance on voluntary action to maintain an institution, carry out a policy, or achieve an end.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, 1930

an act, sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Stopped circular flow of money; made Great Depression worse

Farmers' Holiday Association

a movement of Midwestern United States farmers who, during the Great Depression, endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market, in essence creating a farmers' strike.

"Hoovervilles"

the popular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression. They were named after the President of the United States at the time, Herbert Hoover, because he allegedly let the nation slide into depression.

Dust Bowl

a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.

"Okies"

a term dating from as early as 1907, originally denoting residents or natives of Oklahoma.
In the 1930s in California, the term (often used in contempt) came to refer to very poor migrants from Oklahoma (and nearby states). Jobs were very scarce in the 1930s but after the defense boom began in 1940 there were plenty of high paying jobs in in the shipyards and defense factories.

"Bonus Army", 1932

the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
Many of the war veterans had been out of work since the beginning of the Great Depression. The World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 had awarded them bonuses in the form of certificates they could not redeem until 1945. Each service certificate, issued to a qualified veteran soldier, bore a face value equal to the soldier's promised payment plus compound interest. The principal demand of the _________ was the immediate cash payment of their certificates.

Douglas MacArthur

an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign.
Involved in breaking up the Bonus Army

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

the 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression.

Eleanor Roosevelt

the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, she continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.

"New Deal"

a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.

First 100 Days

a sample of the first 100 days of a first term presidency of a president of the United States. It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.
(set by FDR)

"Fireside Chats"

a series of thirty evening radio addresses given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944.

Bank Holiday

declared on March 5th, 1932; took place from the 6th to the 13th; prevented banks from failing along with the Emergency Banking Relief Act, March 9th

"Brain Trust"

refers to the smart people that FDR kept around him to help him deal with the Great Depression

Harold Ickes

Secretary of the Interior for FDR from 1933-46

Henry Moregenthau, Jr.

Treasury Secretary for FDR from 1934-45

Relief, Recovery, and Reform

The 3 R's that were the goals of the 2 New Deals

Emergency Banking Relief Act

an act passed on March 9th, 1933 to encourage the Federal Reserve to provide emergency cash to failing banks; restores public confidence in financial system

Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA), May 1933

an act that created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, which, under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs; the main goal of the administration created by this act was alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government.

Harry L. Hopkins

one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
(also did work with FERA)

Reforestation Relief Act, March 1933

an act that created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

a public work relief program (created by the Reforestation Relief Act) that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17-23. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments; designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 2.5 million young men participated.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), May 1933

an act that created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which put mandatory restrictions on crop production, gave compensation/subsidies for non-production, and even gave compensation for destroying crops and livestock; later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court

Farm Credit Act, June 1933

an act that made it possible for many farmers to keep their farms and survive the Great Depression. It did so by offering short-term loans for agricultural production as well as extended low interest rates for farmers threatened by foreclosure. Small farmers were able to refinance their mortgages with the aid of twelve district banks, called Banks for Cooperatives. A thirteenth bank served larger farming operations. Local Production Credit Associations provided short and intermediate term loans for seasonal production, insuring that farmers would not lose out on essential crop yields.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), June 1933

an act that marked the close of the first Hundred Days of FDR's first term; created the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which made industry, labor, and government collaborate and sponsored boards for each industry; this act also strengthened union bargaining power in Section 7(a)

Public Works Administration (PWA)

part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools. Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, and again in 1938.

Blue Eagle: "We Do Our Part"

the logo and slogan of the NIRA symbol

structures built during the Great Depression (?)

Hoover Dam, Triborough Bridge (New York), Lincoln Tunnel (New York), Grand Coulee Dam (Washington)

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), May 1933

a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska.

(Federal) Securities Act, May 1933

An act that regulated marketing and disclosure of securities by the FTC (Federal Trade Commission); was strengthened by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the SEC

Securities Exchange Act, June 1934

a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America. It was a sweeping piece of legislation. The Act and related statutes form the basis of regulation of the financial markets and their participants in the United States. The 1934 Act also established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the agency primarily responsible for enforcement of United States federal securities law.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

a federal agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets in the United States. In addition to the 1934 Act that created it, the ___ enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other statutes.

Joseph P. Kennedy

a prominent American businessman, investor, and government official; father of JFK and all of his siblings; first chairman of the SEC; may have made fortune from bootlegging liquor

Home Owners Refinancing Act, June 1933

an Act of Congress of the United States passed as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression to help those in danger of losing their homes. The act, which went into effect on June 13, 1933, provided mortgage assistance to homeowners or would-be homeowners by providing them money or refinancing mortgages.
Sponsored by Senate Majority leader Joe Robinson of Arkansas, it also created the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), building off of Herbert Hoover's Federal Loan Bank Board. The Corporation lent low-interest money to families in danger of losing their homes to foreclosure. By the mid 1930s, the HOLC had refinanced nearly 20% of urban homes in the country.

Banking ((second) Glass-Steagall) Act of 1933, June 1933

an act that separated investment and commercial banking (repealed in 1999); created FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation); Increased Federal Reserve's oversight of banking practices

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, up to $250,000 per depositor per bank as of January 2012.

Civil Works Administration (CWA), November 1933

an administration that built and repaired infrastructure, hired skilled labor; employed 4 million in 5 months; Roosevelt canceled it in 1934 because he was afraid over how much it was costing; returned a year later (May 1935) as WPA

Harry Hopkins

one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.

Gold Reserve Act, January 1934

required that all gold and gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered and vested in the sole title of the United States Department of the Treasury; outlawed most private possession of gold, forcing individuals to sell it to the Treasury, after which it was stored in United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox and other locations. The act also changed the nominal price of gold from $20.67 per troy ounce to $35.

John Maynard Keynes

a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments. He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as (namesake) economics, as well as its various offshoots.
New Deal followed some of his ideas; not entirely; promoted deficit spending

Communications Act, June 1934

a United States federal law signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Act replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC.

Silver Purchase Act, June 1934

required the U.S. Treasury Secretary to purchase silver in large quantities and allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all private silver holdings. The act greatly disrupted the world's silver markets and ultimately was repealed in the 1960s.
allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all silver that was owned by American citizens (with a few exceptions including silver coins, jewelry or industrial materials). Americans had to sell their silver to the government for 50 cents an ounce.
increased price of silver

Indian Reorganization Act, 1934

U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.

Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor

the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency.
(against child labor?)

"Pin Money"

1. An allowance of money given by a husband to his wife for private and personal expenditures.
2. Money for incidental expenses.
3. A trivial sum.

Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, April 1935

passed on April 8 during the "Second Hundred Days" as a part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. It was a "large-scale public works program for the jobless" which included the Works Progress Administration.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency, which especially benefited rural and Western areas.

National Youth Administration's Division of Negro Affairs

oversaw the participation of black youth in the National Youth Administration; headed by Mary McLeod Bethune

Resettlement Association (RA), May 1935

a U.S. federal agency that, between April 1935 and December 1936, relocated struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government.

Rural Electrification Administration (REA), May 1935

an administration that provided electricity to rural areas that had never had it before; it gave low interest loans to utilities to facilitate extension of service (sort of a nationwide application of TVA)

National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act, July 1935

an act that was an attempt to restore labor guarantees from NIRA (such as collective bargaining); NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) was created as a result of the passing of this act; mandates good faith bargaining

Social Security Act, August 1935

a legislative act which created the Social Security system in the United States.
was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children.
provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to current retirees are financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.

Revenue Act of 1935 (Wealth Tax Act)

an act that was directed at large incomes; raised United States taxes on higher income levels, gifts, estates and corporations, by introducing the "Wealth Tax". It was a new graduated tax that took up to 75 percent of the highest incomes in taxes, starting at incomes above $50,000.; also raised gift tax

Liberty League

an American political organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was active for just two years. Following the landslide re-election of Roosevelt in 1936, it sharply reduced its activities and disbanded in 1940.

Rev. Charles E. Coughlin

a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than thirty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s.
Created National Union for Social Justice, a nationalistic worker's rights organization which grew impatient with what it viewed as the President's unconstitutional and pseudo-capitalistic monetary policies.
He at first supported FDR, but then disliked him after some of New Deal legislation. Also hated Federal Reserve and was antisemitic

American Socialist Movement

refers to the Socialist Movement that occurred in America...(opposed FDR?)

Dr. Francis Townsend

an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "________ Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.

Huey P. Long

nicknamed The Kingfish, served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928-1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, he split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936.
created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934 with the motto "Every Man a King", proposing new wealth redistribution measures in the form of a net asset tax on corporations and individuals to curb the poverty and homelessness endemic nationwide during the Great Depression.
A leftist populist, he was preparing to challenge FDR's reelection in 1936 in alliance with radio's influential Catholic priest Charles Coughlin, or run for president in 1940 when Franklin Roosevelt was expected to retire. However, he was assassinated in 1935; his national movement faded, while his state organization continued in Louisiana.

Alf Landon

an American Republican politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937. He was best known for having been the Republican Party's (GOP) nominee for President of the United States, defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election.

Schechter Poultry v. US (1935)

a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional.

US v. Butler (1936)

a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp (1936)

a United States Supreme Court case that declared that the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (commonly known as the Wagner Act) was constitutional. It effectively spelled the end to the Court's striking down of New Deal economic legislation, and greatly increased Congress's power under the Commerce Clause.

Judiciary Reorganization Bill

a bill that was attempted to be passed by FDR to increase the number of Supreme Court Justices and allow courtpacking; it was a political miscalculation by FDR, and people did not trust him as much after that

Supreme Court Retirement Act, March 1937

an act that permitted Supreme Court Justices to retire at age 70 with full pay, after 10 years of service

National Housing (Wagner-Steagall) Act, September 1937

provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing agencies (LHA's) to improve living conditions for low-income families.
The act created the United States Housing Authority within the United States Department of the Interior. The act builds on the National Housing Act of 1934, which created the Federal Housing Administration. Both the 1934 Act and the 1937 Act were influenced by American housing reformers of the period, with Catherine Bauer chief among them. Bauer drafted much of this legislation and served as a Director in the United States Housing Authority, the agency created by the 1937 Act to control the payment of subsidies, for two years.
(created Federal Housing Authority?)

Fair Labor Standards (Wages and Hour) Act, 1938

a federal statute of the United States; established a national minimum wage, guaranteed 'time-and-a-half' for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term that is defined in the statute. It applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage.
According to the Act, workers must be paid minimum wage and overtime pay must be 1 1/2 times regular pay. Children under the age of 18 cannot do certain dangerous jobs and children under the age of 16 cannot work.
helped combat child labor and provided many low-income wage earners the ability to support themselves working less hours.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 1937

originated as the Committee for Industrial Organization in 1935; changed its name in 1937; umbrella union for unskilled labor

John L. Lewis

an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

Sit-Down Strikes

strikes in which people appear at work but simply do nothing

Roosevelt Recession, 1937-1938

a brief recession that occurred when FDR started reducing the economic relief; a temporary reversal of the economic recovery from the Great Depression in the United States.

Popular Culture of the 1930's

swing music; film; sports...

Hays Code

AKA The Motion Picture Production Code; was the set of industry moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968.

21st Amendment

a Constitutional Amendment that repealed 18th and prohibition of alcohol

Hindenburg Explosion

took place on Thursday, May 6, 1937, as the namesake German passenger caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station, which is located adjacent to the borough of Lakehurst, New Jersey. Of the 97 people on board (36 passengers, 61 crew), there were 36 fatalities, including one death among the ground crew.

Scottsboro Boys 1931-1938

nine black teenage boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938)

a United States Supreme Court decision holding that states that provide a school to white students must provide in-state education to blacks as well. States can satisfy this requirement by allowing blacks and whites to attend the same school or creating a second school for blacks.

Walter White

a civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century and directed a broad program of legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement. He was also a journalist, novelist, and essayist. He graduated from Atlanta University in 1916 (now Clark Atlanta University). In 1918 he joined the small national staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in New York at the invitation of James Weldon Johnson, where he acted as Johnson's assistant national secretary. He later succeeded Johnson as the head of the NAACP, serving from 1931 to 1955.
He oversaw the plans and organizational structure of the fight against public segregation. Under his leadership, the NAACP set up the Legal Defense Fund, which raised numerous legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement, and achieved many successes. Among these was the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that segregated education was inherently unequal.

Charles Hamilton Houston

a prominent African American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP Litigation Director who played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws, which earned him the title The Man Who Killed Jim Crow. He is also well known for having trained future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall.

1935 NYC (Harlem) Race Riot

sparked off by rumors of the beating of a teenage shoplifter. Three died, hundreds were wounded and an estimated $2 million in damages were sustained to properties throughout the district, with African-American owned homes and businesses spared the worst of the destruction.

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