History 1111 Mid-Term Study Guide

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Scrapers

were one of the first tools created by hominins-----used to remove meat from scavenged remains.

Southwest Asia*

Upon emerging out of Africa, early hominins first spread to what other continent?

Homo sapiens

first used leaves for clothing, before they learned to weave.

Obsidian

The earliest trade item that has been identified was what material, used to make tools?

Shamanistic spiritual rituals

Archaeologist J. David Lewis-Williams theorizes that the painted caves of the Paleolithic era were used

Dog

During the Ice Age, the ____ was the first animal domesticated by humans.

Amber beads

Material evidence for human habitation in eastern Siberia during the Ice Age thawing period, c. 16,500-12,500 years ago, includes

America

Clovis points are used as evidence to date the presence of humans in what area?

Pushed the dates back by several thousand years, to before 11,500 BCE

What has the discovery of human settlements at Monte Verde in Chile and Taima Taima in Venezuela done to the theories of when humans first arrived in the Americas?

Gender

is a social and cultural construction of behavioral norms. Sexual dimorphism is one characteristic of gender, and often used as an outward marker of gender identity, to which are attached certain behavioral patterns.

Beringia

a landmass that existed during the Ice Age and linked Siberia to Alaska.

Skulls

What part of their ancestors' bodies did the Natufians remove to place in their altar niches?

Beer

Mesopotamian grains were generally made into one of two products for consumption:
bread and _____.

Bronze*

Mesopotamian cities invented the first metal alloy in the period of c. 3300 BCE; this first alloy was

Clay

Mesopotamian cuneiform script was usually written on what material?

The Gods

To defend their power, Mesopotamian kings claimed that their authority to rule was derived from

Create and publicize a law code.

One of Hammurabi's most significant acts as king of Babylonia was to

North

Unification of Egypt under the pharaohs involved linking upper and lower Egypt; where is lower Egypt located?

Pyramids

What was Pharaoh Khufu's contribution to Egyptian history?

Ships

The Minoan state of Crete was particularly well known for building

Anatolia

The proto-Indo European language family originated in

Hittites

The battle of Qadesh in 1274 BCE was the largest chariot battle in the Middle East and was fought between Egypt and

Trade*

The Assyrians came to power through their economic prosperity from

Canaanites

The people referred to as Phoenicians by the Greeks were called _____________ by the Egyptians.

Cedar

Phoenicians city-states grew wealthy from trade in purple dye, foodstuffs, and what wood used for ship-building?

Egypt

The first mention of the people called Israel occurs in 1207 BCE in the records of what conquering people?

Minoan Crete

In the c. 1450 BCE the Mycenaeans conquered what other Mediterranean state?

Heaven and Earth

In Enuma Elish, the goddess Tiamat is killed and her dismembered body divided into

Famlies

whose land produced surpluses gained more economic powers over others and social stratification based on economic status appeared. Wealthy landowners sponsored temples, which gave them a priestly status and more power.

False

Scholars unanimously agree that there was a global flood similar to that mentioned in both the Epic of Gilgamesh and the biblical story of Noah's Ark.

Seals in Ur

What physical evidence links Mesopotamia to Harappa?

Control the Yellow River.

The possibly mythic Emperor Yu of the Xia Dynasty is known for his attempt to

Shen Nong

Which Culture Hero is credited with introducing agriculture to China?

Virtue

According to the Mandate of Heaven Theory, the Shang lost power and were replaced by the
Zhou because the Shang lost

Religious

Under Achaemenid rule, the traditional Mesopotamian urban assembly was empowered to serve in what capacity?

Aramaic

What was the administrative language of the Achaemenid Empire?

Soldier

In Sparta, the most important occupation of Spartan men was as a

Supported a revolt of Anatolian states in Ionia

Although it was perhaps inevitable, Greek city-states and Persia went to war in 499 when Athens

Law code

What was recorded on the Twelve Tablets of Rome in 450 BCE?

Augustus

In 27 BCE the Senate bestowed what title on Octavian, after he ended the civil wars that had plagued the Republic?

Zoroastrianism

The magi are the priestly class of what religion?

Earth

The geometric system of the planets devised by Claudius Ptolemy in the second century CE put what at the center of the system?

join a Jain monastery.

Chandragupta Maurya abdicated his throne in 297 to

Nonviolence

After the Battle of Kalinga, and his conversion to Buddhism, Ashoka adopted the doctrine of

Ritually starved himself to death

How did the founder of the Jains, Mahavira, die?

Parent and child

The fundamental relationship pattern indentified by Confucius was that of

Nonaction

According to the Daode Jing, an effective ruler is one who rules naturally by

Qin

In 25 BCE, what state conquered the Zhou and built China's first empire?

Silk Road

One of the Han Wudi's concerns was to suppress the Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples where?

Mycenaean probably borrowed from Minoan.

What was the relationship between Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations?

Heinrich Schliemann transform Greek

showed that the Iliad and Odyssey were based on a historical past.

Peloponnesian War

What is best known (now) as the "suicide of Greece"?

Carthage

Who was Rome's main rival for control of the Mediterranean around 200 B.C.E.?

Tolerant

Before the life of Jesus, which of these characterize the Roman attitude towards religions of the empire?

Indo-Europeans

The peoples that created Vedic India were part of what larger group?

Ashoka

defeat his brother in a civil war, expand his empire through force, send family members to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.

Zhou

During which dynasty did the "Period of Warring States" occur?

The way

What does Dao mean?

Han

Which Chinese dynasty expanded into Korea, forging cultural and commercial connections with the Koreans and other groups, while engaging in numerous conflicts with the Xiongnu?

Cyrus

Who founded the Persian Empire?

True

It is possible that the city of Caral-Supe is as old as the pyramids of Egypt.

North America

The Clovis points are fluted oval spearheads found in

Record keeping

One of the most intriguing artifacts discovered at Caral-Supe was a quipu, which was used by the people of Caral-Supe and by later Inca for

Olmec

What early American people were known as the "rubber people"?

True

Scholars theorize that overpopulation may have been a problem for some Polynesian islands.

Egyptians

Meroë was established in c. 650 BCE by ___________ who were pushed south along the Nile
by the Assyrians.

Coptic Christianity

As it replaced Meroë in the fourth century CE, Aksum took over trade with the Roman Empire and soon converted to

Gold

Aksum backed its currency with what commodity?

Bantu

Beginning around c. 600 CE there was a massive migration of what people into the Great Lakes of Africa?

Olmec

The Maya were culturally influenced by what other early American people?

From the beginning of the universe

Among the four calendars used by the Maya, the Long Count measured time in what way?

Yathrib

After being driven out of Mecca in 622, where did Muhammad and his followers settle?

Abraham

According to Islamic tradition, the Ka'ba in Mecca is a sanctuary that goes back to the time of

Uighur

In 751 a Persian and Arab army defeated _________ and Chinese forces to take control of the Silk Road.

The Shia offer prayers to Ali

How do the Sunni and Shia differ in their interpretation of the five pillars?

They were left in place as figureheads

By 945 Turks had seized power from the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad; what happened to the caliphs?

Icons

In 726 Byzantine emperor Leo III attempted to reform Christian practice by banning the use of

the month of fasting

Sunni religious authority did not object to the new scientific thought of the tenth century because science was useful in determining

Muslims

Charles Martel of the Carolingians acquired the name Martel, "the Hammer," because of his military victory over whom at the Battle of Tours?

God

Because Pepin the Short was crowned with holy oil, he introduced the idea that he was king by the authority of

Rome

Although called the pope, the official title of the head of the church is Bishop of

Emperor of the Romans

What title did Charlemagne acquire in 800 from Pope Leo III?

Military

In the feudal system that arose in ninth-century Frankia, what was the basic service that vassals owed their lords?

Grants of land

In feudalism, what was a fief?

First Crusade

Anti-Jewish feelings and violence increased after what eleventh-century event?

Uighur

In 751 a Persian and Arab army defeated _________ and Chinese forces to take control of the Silk Road.

he had a vision predicting his victories if he launched a conquest.

Abd al-Malik was determined to renew Arab efforts at conquering because he believed that

slaves and gold.

The West Africa to China trade network in which the Mamluks played such a crucial role began with the West African trade in

India

Al Khwarizmi borrowed the zero to nine decimal system from

the month of fasting.

Sunni religious authority did not object to the new scientific thought of the tenth century because science was useful in determining

Muslims

Charles Martel of the Carolingians acquired the name Martel, "the Hammer," because of his military victory over whom at the Battle of Tours?

God

Because Pepin the Short was crowned with holy oil, he introduced the idea that he was king by the authority of

Rome

Although called the pope, the official title of the head of the church is Bishop of

Germanic

Charlemagne's reign as Frankish king represents the full synthesis of Roman, Christian, and ________ elements.

Emperor of the Romans

What title did Charlemagne acquire in 800 from Pope Leo III?

Arabic

Adelard of Bath, in the early twelfth century, translated many Greek scientific texts from

Confucian texts.

The bureaucratic exams instituted by the Tang centered on knowledge of

Muslims

Who defeated the Tang at the Battle of Talas in 751?

money

To aid commerce, the Song were the first people in the world to print what on paper?

novel

What literary format did Murasaki Shikibu contribute to world literature?

China.

The only contemporary written account of the first Korean state, the Choson kingdom, comes from

Buddhism

In the fourth century CE, the Chinese state of Jin introduced Confucianism, writing, and ___________ into Koguryo, Korea.

fishing

The first Japanese villages during the Jomon period, developed around __________ rather than agriculture.

writing

With the introduction of Buddhism to Japan in c. 553 CE, what aspect of Chinese culture was
also exported to Japan?

a typhoon (kamikaze)

What destroyed the second Mongol fleet which attempted to invade Japan in 1281?

Shinto

As Confucianism became more popular in Japan, it led to a decrease in women's status among aristocratic classes, but it was moderated by what influence?

China

The name "Vietnam" originated in the name for the region by what other Asian power?

introduction of the camel.

A dramatic change in transportation crossing the Sahara began in the early centuries of the common era with the

Sheba

According to the Kebra Negast, the Solominid Dynasty was descended from Solomon of the
Hebrews and the Queen of

Ghana

According to one oral tradition, Sundiata came to power in 1235 because he helped the Malinke defeat

mosque.

Mansa Musa of Mali brought Iberian architects to Timbuktu to build a

only a divine figure.

Coptic Christians believe that Christ was

An advanced calendar.

The Maya are noted for:

The gold trade along with the trans-Saharan slave trade.

The power exerted by West African kingdoms before 1500 CE was based upon:

Renaissance humanism:

Sought to study Greek and Roman classical authors in order for humanity to be able to better itself.

Medieval European Feudalism refers to:

A form of government based on a personal bond between noblemen in the High Middle Ages.

Koran

The holy book of Islam.

Arabian satisfaction with their Roman rulers.

Besides its powerful equality message, the quick spread of Islam throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the first few generations of its founding can be attributed to:

Nero promoted Christians into high government positions.

Christianity triumphed in the Late Roman Empire in part because:

Pax Romana

A long period of general peace and prosperity during the Roman Empire.

The first people to tolerate other religions.

One of the most important cultural contributions of the Romans was:

Confucius taught

Goodness should be the basis of human relations and the family should be the central unit of society.

Mandate of Heaven

The right to replace an emperor who did not care for the welfare of the people.

Athens, Greece

The first functioning democracy in the ancient world arose in:

The first religion that has consequences for earthly human action.

Which of the following are contributions of the ancient Hebrews to world civilization?

Budda Suffering

Obsession with the material world and selfish desires.

2000 B.C.E., the Aryans

Migrated into northern India and created the caste system.

Egyptian Pyramids

They were built to be used as tombs.

The Nile River.

Which river influenced Ancient Egyptian Civilization the most?

Cuneiform

The writing system invented in Mesopotamia was known as:

The Tigris and Euphrates River valley.

Which of the following river valleys is most closely associated with Mesopotamian civilization?

bronze in tools and in weapons.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the Neolithic Revolution?

Loyalty

What concept held the feudal relationship together?

magnetic compass

The most important navigational improvement to European shipping int he twelfth century was the adoption of the

First crusade

Anti jewish feelings and violence in Europe increased after what eleventh century event.

Greek

Adelard of bath, in the early twelfth century translated many Greek scientific texts from

Buddhism

The song Dynasty synthesis from 960-1279 joined confuciansism and daoism with

Veiling of women

Muslims and hindus in india resisted sharing religious cultural practices but some hindus did adopt what practice

Japan

Tang expansion and dominance in asia is obvious in the Taika and great reforms modeled on cina which were adopted by what asain state in 645

Confucian texts

The bureaucratic exams instituted by the tang centered on knowledge of

Arabs

Who defeated the tang at the battle of talas in 751

tea

What beverage was introduced to tang china from southeast asia and became popular internally and for trade?

Money

To aid commerce the song were the first people in the world to print what on paper

Bubonic plague

Chinas oppression during the Yuan dynasty was compounded by what fourteenth century disaster

novel

What literary format did murasaki shikibu contribute to world literature?

writing

with the introduction of buddhism to japan in c. 553 CE what aspect of chinese culture was aslo exported to japen?

Minamoto

The taika Great Reform movement of 645 led to a power struggle between two uji the soga and

Korea

The only contemporary written account of the first korean state the choson kingdom comes from

having to speak japanese

Monasteries were important to japanese state and a source of tension largely due to what exception

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