PSYC303 Learning & Cognition

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Cognitive Psychology course quiz & exam questions & answers

Generally, if we can see an object's geons, we are able to identify the object. This is known as the

principles of componential recovery

The recognition-by-components approach proposes that there are a number of basic features such as

rectangular solids and cubes

Some perceptions result from assumptions we make about the environment that we are not even aware of. This theory of unconscious inference was developed by

Helmholtz

A heuristic is a

"rule of thumb" that provides a best-guess solution to a problem

The study of the behavior of humans with brain damage is called

neuropsychology

When Sam listens to his girlfriend Susan in the restaurant and ignores other people's conversations, he is engaged in the process of _______ attention

selective

Broadbent's "filter model" proposes that the filter identifies the attended message based on

physical characteristics

Which of the following would likely be an input message into the detector in Broadbent's model?

A message with a German accent

Colby and coworkers' study showed that a monkey's parietal cortex responded best to the appearance of a light when it was the focus of the monkey's

attention

According to Treisman's feature integration theory, the first stage of perception is called the _____ stage.

preattentive

According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as

labeling familiar objects

Information remains in sensory memory for seconds or a fraction of a second

seconds or a fraction of a second

Compared to the whole-report technique, the partial-report procedure involves

a smaller response set

Brief sensory memory for sound is known as

echoic memory

STM's capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)

meaningful units

Loss of memory for things that have happened in the past is known as

retrograde amnesia

The dramatic case of patient H.M. clearly illustrates that _____is crucial for the formation of LTMs

the hippocampus

Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?

Semantic memory

Work with brain-injured patients reveals that _____memory does not depend on conscious memory.

implicit and procedural

According to your text, which of the following movies is LEAST accurate in its portrayal of a memory problem?

50 First Dates

Donders' main reason for doing his choice reaction time experiment was to study

decision making

A common feature of both a reaction time experiment and an operant conditioning experiment is

the measurement of behavior

Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?

Tolman

Who proposed that children's language development was caused by imitation and reinforcement?

B. F. Skinner

The field that studies how to make machines behave in ways that are intelligent if a human were so behaving is known as

artificial intelligence

The neuron doctrine is

in disagreement with nerve net theory

Action potentials occur in the

axon

Which part of the brain is important for touch?

Parietal lobe

The layer of neurons that lines the back of the eye is called the

retina

Most cognitive psychologists_________the notion of a grandmother cell.

reject

Which of the following is not a geon?

Circle

The process by which small objects become perceptually grouped to form larger objects is

perceptual organization

Palmer's experiment, in which he asked people to identify objects in a kitchen, showed how ______ can affect perception.

context

The landmark discrimination problem is more difficult to do if you have damage to your______ lobe.

parietal

The perception pathway corresponds to the _________pathway, while the action pathway corresponds to the _______pathway.

what; where

Selection of the attended message in the Broadbent model occurs based on the

physical characteristics of the message

A high threshold in Treisman's model of attention implies that

a strong signal to cause activation

The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously is known as

divided attention

The Stroop effect demonstrates

how automatic processing can interfere with intended processing

Controlled processing involves

close attention

The use of an eye tracker can help reveal the shifting of one's _______ attention.

overt

When we reach a scene, initial fixations are most likely to occur on _____areas.

high-saliency

A property of control processes in the modal model of memory is that they

may differ from one task to another

Which of the following represents the most effective chunking of the digit sequence 14929111776?

1492 911 1776

If you remember something in terms of its meaning, the type of encoding you are using is

semantic

One function of ________ is controlling the suppression of irrelevant information.

the central executive

Types of declarative memory are _____ and ______ memory.

episodic; semantic

The multiple choice question is an example of a ______test.

recognition

Acquiring information and transforming it into memory is

encoding

The principle that we learn information together with its context is known as

encoding specificity

Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos

they took themselves

Schrauf and Rubin's "two group of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. The results support the:

cognitive hypothesis

Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?

it is memory for circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.

Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen

schema

In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment participants' reproductions contained inaccuracies based on

cultural expectations

The misinformation effect occurs when a person's memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented

after the event

The mental representations of knowledge are:

concepts

The definitional approach to categorization

doesn't work well for most natural objects like birds, trees, and plants

Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _______ into their network model

spreading activation

If I tell you to think of a fish and you think of its characteristics, such as gills, fins, no air, etc.,you are thinking of its ______ attributes.

defining

Mental imagery involves

experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input

Behaviorists branded the study of imagery as being unproductive because

visual images are invisible to everyone except the person experiencing them

"Early" researchers of imagery (beginning with Aristotle until just prior to the dominance of behaviorism) proposed all of the following EXCEPT

imagery requires a special mechanism

Mental-scanning experiments found

a positive linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image

Imagery neurons respond to

visual images as well as objects in a specific category

Language consists of smaller components, like words that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as

hierarchical structure

B F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through

reinforcement

Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn't know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters "wanderlust" in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word means "desire to travel," The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron's

lexicon

Which of the following is the best example of a garden path sentence?

Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night

Boxing champion George Foreman recently described his family vacations with the statement, "At our ranch in Marshall, Texas, there are lots of ponds and I take the kids out and we fish. And then of course, we grill them." That a reader understands "them" appropriately (George grills fish and not kids) is a result of a(n)____ inference

anaphoric

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