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When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is a _____.

diploid sporophyte

All seed plants _____.

are heterosporous

The adaptation that made possible the colonization of dry land environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of _____.

pollen

Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other?

ferns

The seed coat's most important function is to provide

protection for the embryo

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics is unique to the seed-producing plants?

pollen

Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated.
1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence
2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence
3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence

3 → 1 → 2

In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a

fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia.

Which of the following is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?

integument(s)

A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains, and then rinses away the excess stain, what should occur?

The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.



In the figure, which number represents the mature gametophyte?

7

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.



In the figure, which number represents an embryo?

11

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.



Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s) in the figure?

4

In gymnosperms megaspores develop into _____ .

female gametophytes

In pine, the embryo develops within the _____.

female gametophyte

Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because they

have pollen

Which of the following statements is true of the pine life cycle?

Conifer pollen grains contain male gametophytes.

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?
1. sporophyte embryo
2. female gametophyte
3. egg cell
4. megaspore

4 → 2 → 3 → 1

Which of the following can be found in gymnosperms?

pollen

Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, which pair of structures protects seed plants' embryos and male gametophytes, respectively, from desiccation?

integuments-sporopollenin

The question refers to the following description.

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the Age of the Dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. These beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from the microsporophylls. Upon visiting megasporophylls, the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. In cycads, pollen cones and seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.


Which feature of cycads distinguishes them from most other gymnosperms?
1. They have exposed ovules.
2. They have flagellated sperm.
3. They are pollinated by animals.

2 and 3

The question refers to the following description.

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the Age of the Dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. These beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from the microsporophylls. Upon visiting megasporophylls, the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. In cycads, pollen cones and seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.


Which feature of cycads makes them similar to many angiosperms?
1. They have exposed ovules.
2. They have flagellated sperm.
3. They are pollinated by animals.

3 only

The question refers to the following description.

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the Age of the Dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. These beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from the microsporophylls. Upon visiting megasporophylls, the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. In cycads, pollen cones and seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.


If the beetles survive by consuming cycad pollen, then whether the beetles should be considered mutualists with, or parasites of, the cycads depends upon the extent to which their overall activities affect cycad reproduction.

the extent to which their overall activities affect cycad reproduction.

The question refers to the following description.

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the Age of the Dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. These beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from the microsporophylls. Upon visiting megasporophylls, the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. In cycads, pollen cones and seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.


On the Pacific island of Guam, large herbivorous bats called "flying foxes" commonly feed on cycad seeds, a potent source of neurotoxins. The flying foxes do not visit male cones. Consequently, what should be true?

Flying foxes can be dispersal agents of cycad seeds if the seeds sometimes get swallowed whole (in other words, without getting chewed).

The question refers to the following description.

The cycads, a mostly tropical phylum of gymnosperms, evolved about 300 million years ago and were dominant forms during the Age of the Dinosaurs. Though their sperm are flagellated, their ovules are pollinated by beetles. These beetles get nutrition (they eat pollen) and shelter from the microsporophylls. Upon visiting megasporophylls, the beetles transfer pollen to the exposed ovules. In cycads, pollen cones and seed cones are borne on different plants. Cycads synthesize neurotoxins, especially in the seeds, that are effective against most animals, including humans.


If one were to erect a new taxon of plants that included all plants that are pollinated by animals, and only plants that are pollinated by animals, then this new taxon would be

polyphyletic

The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the _____.

presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule

Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have _____.

flowers`

Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?

petals

Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms?

double internal fertilization

Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?

the flower includes sporophyte tissue

Carpels and stamens are

modified sporophylls

Which of the following is a true statement about angiosperm carpels?

Carpels surround and nourish the female gametophyte

Angiosperm double fertilization is so-called because it features the formation of

one embryo involving one sperm cell and an endosperm involving a second sperm cell.

Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?

ovule

Human survival literally depends on the produce of _____.

angiosperms

What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?

human population growth

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?

within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

A fruit is most commonly

a mature ovary

Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants?

alternation of generations

Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except

ovaries

What are the products of meiosis in the life cycle of a seed plant?

microspores or megaspores

Select the correct statement describing the life cycle of angiosperms.

Double fertilization in the life cycle of seed plants results in the production of a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm nucleus.

Which of these structures is a separate generation from the plant sporophyte?

A male gametophyte within a pollen grain

In which of the following pairs do the structures play comparable roles in the plant and animal life cycles?

A plant sporophyte and an adult animal

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