# Statistics Exam 1

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Salkind, Chapters 1 - 6

Statistics

Francis Galton

### Which of the following would be used to describe the type of statistical methods used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data?

Descriptive statistics

### Which of the following would be used to describe the type of statistical methods used to make inferences about the population based on a sample?

Inferential statistics

Formula

2+5

=6^2

/

*

-

Range

=(6-3)*2

### Which of the following formulas averages the values of 6, 5, 7, 4, and 10?

AVERAGE (10, 4, 5, 6, 7)

Visicalc

Astronomy

Argument

### An argument in mathematical terms is which of the following?

A set of premises

(x+y+z)/3

Ctrl+'

### Where will the results of the formula appear when you hit the Enter key?

In the selected cell

### The mode measures central tendency in terms of which of these?

The most common score

Average

Median

Mean

Mean

MEDIAN(A1:A10)

Median

Mode

MODE (A1:A12)

An odd number

Weighted mean

Mean

Outliers

Skew

### In the formula for computing the mean, what does the letter X represent?

Individual scores

Summation

Sample size

the 13th case

ZX/n

Francis Galton

Variability

Mean

Range

Range

Outliers

Skew

highest score

### When calculating the standard deviation, what must be done in order to obtain an unbiased estimate of the population?

Subtract 1 from n

### Which of the following sets of scores has the most variability?

7, 10, 11, 15, 19

Range

h-l

h-l+1

VAR(A1:A12)

0

Variance

### Which of the following is one way to represent variance?

s^2 (s to the power of 2)

### What is the most frequently used measure of variability?

Standard deviation

Unbiased

### which of the following are among the things to remember when creating figures?

Maintain the scale in the graph

### What is the most basic method of illustrating data?

Frequency distribution

### Which of the following is a method o tallying, and representing, how often a certain score occurs?

Frequency distribution

Class interval

Histogram

Class interval

Polygon

Skewness

### In order to say that a distribution is positively skewed, which of the following must be true?

Right tail must be longer than the left

Negative skew

Positive skew

Kurtosis

Leptokurtic

Platykurtic

SKEW(A1:A20)

### If the mean of a set of scores is greater than the median, what can be said about the distribution?

Positively skewed

### If the median of a set of scores is greater than the mean, what can be said about the distribution

Negatively skewed

Column chart

Line graph

Karl Pearson

Correlation

Mean

Bivariate

-1.0 to 1.0

### If variables change in the same direction, what type of correlation is this called?

Positive correlation

### If variables change in the opposite direction, what type of correlation is this called?

Negative correlation

R>xy

### Which of the following represent the Excel function to be used when computing correlation coefficients?

CORREL(A1:A10; B1:B10)

Scatterplot

Positive slope

.80

.79

.45

.26

Pearson

Phi

Spearman rank

.90

.19

### Which of the following is concerned with monitoring estimates of present performance and predictions of future performance?

Criterion validity

Content validity

Content validity

### If you want to know that a test measures some underlying psychological construct, what type of validity evidence would you want to collect?

Construct validity

### If you correlate scores from your test with some other valid measure that assesses the same set of abilities, what type of validity evidence are you collecting?

Criterion validity

Content validity

### What is the key to establishing criterion validity?

Quality of the criterion

### High school class rank is highly correlated with college GPA. This is an example of what type of validity?

Predictive validity

Observed score

### A measure of how stable a test is over time is an example of which of the following?

Test-retest reliability

+1.00

### Two trained professionals observe the behavior of children in a classroom. They each rate observed behaviors...

Interrater reliability

Reliable

### When we calculate reliability, we know the observes score. What are the two unknown components of the reliability equation?

True and error scores

### how does interrater reliability measure consistency?

From rater to rater

a

### Test-retest reliability is an example of which of the following?

Measure of stability

### parallel forms reliability is an example of which of the following?

Measure of equivalence

### Interrater reliability is an example of which of the following?

Measure of equivalence

### Interrater reliability is an example of which of the following?

Measure of agreement

.90

### What ar the four levels of measurement?

Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

Example: