Salkind, Chapters 1 - 6

### What term is used to describe the science of organizing and analyzing information to make the information easily understood?

Statistics

### Which of the following individuals used statistics methods during the 17th century to study the intelligence of his family members?

Francis Galton

### Which of the following would be used to describe the type of statistical methods used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data?

Descriptive statistics

### Which of the following would be used to describe the type of statistical methods used to make inferences about the population based on a sample?

Inferential statistics

### Which of the following is an example of an Excel formula for taking the number 6 to the power of 2?

=6^2

### Which of the following formulas subtracts the value of 3 from 6 and multiplies the outcome by 2?

=(6-3)*2

### Most of the basic statistical procedures were first developed and used in agriculture and which of the following fields?

Astronomy

### Which of the following formulas will add each of the scores together and divide the sum by 3?

(x+y+z)/3

### To identify the point in a distribution at which 50% of scores fall above and 50% fall below a given score, which measure of central tendency would you report?

Median

### If you wanted to identify the most frequently occuring score in a distribution, which measure of central tendency would you report?

Mode

### Which of the following is the correct function for calculating the score occurring most often in a distribution?

MODE (A1:A12)

### The median is the score of the middle case when the number of cases in the data set is which of the following?

An odd number

### Which of the following requires you to multiply a set of scores by the frequency of their occurrence, add the total of these products, and divide by the total number of scores?

Weighted mean

### The average and which of the following can be used to describe the characteristics of a distribution and show how distributions differ from one another?

Variability

### The three measures of variability commonly used to reflect the spread or dispersion in a group of scores are the standard deviation, the variance, and what?

Range

### When subtracting the largest number in a distribution from the smallest, what type of variability is being calculated?

Range

### When calculating the standard deviation, what must be done in order to obtain an unbiased estimate of the population?

Subtract 1 from n

### Which of the following is the correct function for calculating an unbiased estimate of the variance in the population?

VAR(A1:A12)

### If you intend to use a sample as an estimate of a population parameter, which standard deviation is the best to calculate?

Unbiased

### which of the following are among the things to remember when creating figures?

Maintain the scale in the graph

### Which of the following is a method o tallying, and representing, how often a certain score occurs?

Frequency distribution

### What is the term associated with a range of numbers that spans a set number of scores used when creating frequency distributions?

Class interval

### In order to create a histogram in Excel, you must identify the "bins" you want. To what are the bins referring?

Class interval

### What do you call a continuous line that represents the frequency of scores within a class interval?

Polygon

### In order to say that a distribution is positively skewed, which of the following must be true?

Right tail must be longer than the left

### When the left tail of a distribution's curve is longer than the right, what is this called?

Negative skew

### When the right tail of a distribution's curve is longer than the left, what is this called?

Positive skew

### Which of the following refers to a distributions's curve that is relatively peaked in comparison to a normal curve?

Leptokurtic

### Which of the following refers to a distribution's curve that is relatively flat in comparison to a normal curve?

Platykurtic

### Which of the following Excel functions will allow you to examine the symmetry of a set of scores?

SKEW(A1:A20)

### If the mean of a set of scores is greater than the median, what can be said about the distribution?

Positively skewed

### If the median of a set of scores is greater than the mean, what can be said about the distribution

Negatively skewed

### Using the Excel Charts program, if you wanted to examine the proportion of students in this class who are male compared to female, which of the following might you use?

Column chart

### If you were interested in tracking your GPA during the time you are in graduate school, which of the following might you use?

Line graph

### When interested in examining how one variable changes in relation to another, which of the following descriptive statistics would you want to use?

Correlation

### If variables change in the same direction, what type of correlation is this called?

Positive correlation

### If variables change in the opposite direction, what type of correlation is this called?

Negative correlation

### Which of the following represent the Excel function to be used when computing correlation coefficients?

CORREL(A1:A10; B1:B10)

### When data points group together in a cluster from the lower left-hand side of the xy axis to the upper right-hand side, what is this?

Positive slope

### If you wanted to compute the correlations between two interval-level variables, which type of correlation should you use?

Pearson

### If you wanted to compute the correlation between two nominal-level variables, which type of correlation should you use?

Phi

### If you wanted to compute the correlation between two ordinal-level variables, which type of correlation should you use?

Spearman rank

### If the coefficient of determination between two variables is.81, what is the Pearson correlation coefficient?

.90

### If the coefficient of determination between two variables is .81, what is the coefficient of alienation?

.19

### Which of the following is concerned with monitoring estimates of present performance and predictions of future performance?

Criterion validity

### If you want to know that a test measures some underlying psychological construct, what type of validity evidence would you want to collect?

Construct validity

### If you correlate scores from your test with some other valid measure that assesses the same set of abilities, what type of validity evidence are you collecting?

Criterion validity

### If I can say that my weekly statistics quiz fairly assesses the material covered, what source of validity evidence should I have collected?

Content validity

### High school class rank is highly correlated with college GPA. This is an example of what type of validity?

Predictive validity

### A measure of how stable a test is over time is an example of which of the following?

Test-retest reliability

### Two trained professionals observe the behavior of children in a classroom. They each rate observed behaviors...

Interrater reliability

### If the measures associates with a test are said to be consistent, you might conclude that the measure is which of the following?

Reliable

### When we calculate reliability, we know the observes score. What are the two unknown components of the reliability equation?

True and error scores

### Which of the following is the Greek letter associated with Cronbach's alpha, sometimes known as coefficient alpha?

a

### What would the interrater reliability be for a 50-item measure in which the number of agreements between Rater 1 and Rater 2 was 45?

.90