Transformation of chirstiandom into christianity
latin christiandom-> roman catholic church --> the great schism --> protestant reformation --> fragmented into denominations --> now a religion, instead of a culture (because of separation of church and state)
the great schism
1054, eastern orthodox and western roman catholic
meeting of the representatives of each state of the holy roman empire with the emperor.
the diet of worms
because luther burned the exsurge domine, refusing to recant his statements, he was called to the diet of worms. spared, but placed under imperial ban.
one of the lay religious movements in northern Europe on the eve of the reformation practiced by the brothers of the common life.
brothers of the common life
Educators of a kind of boarding school for reform-minded laity. Here, clerics and laity shared a common life, stressing individual piety.
system of benefices
system in which ecclesiastical posts were tied to economic advantages and privileges.
sale of religious posts
comes from pluralism, when religious official takes up multiple posts in different states, he can't be in two states at once so he's not where he's supposed to be. Thus, he can't carry out his responsibilities, yet he still receives the benefits.
indulgences: original defintion
the full or partial remission of temporal (temporary) punishment due for sins already forgiven (priest has already absolved you of your sins at confession). Would let you pay off this retribution to god by doing prayers and charity work.
indulgences: what they became
people literally started buying forgiveness for their sins instead of going to the priest. the unrestricted sale of them by professional pardoners. political, financial, and religious mixed because rulers got money from the sale of indulgences.
university of wittenberg
university founded by Frederick the wise in which Luther was an important preacher. The university became the center of protestant teaching.
the three "solas"
-sola fide: justification by faith alone
-sola scriptura: life and doctrine must submit to the bible
-sola gratia: only through god's grace.
priesthood of all believers
Lutheran doctrine that said everyone who believes in god and Jesus and has been baptized is a priest so there's not difference between the priest and the laity in the eyes of god.
the Eucharist (ceremony of eating the bread at communion). The conversion of the host (bread) into the body of Christ.
justification by faith alone
Lutheran doctrine, one of the three "solas".Faith in Christ mends the broken bond between humanity and god. Righteousness comes to all who believe in and trust jesus Christ. Charity/good works are a consequence of salvation, not a requirement for it.
Calvinist belief that says that god already knows since you were born whether you're going to heaven or hell.
medieval characteristic: pieces of people: mementos of important saints and martyrs that people would pray to. (people's superstition instead of formal church teachings)
Frederick the Wise's castle that he hid Martin Luther to protect him when he was placed under the imperial ban.
a defensive alliance of the Lutherans. It was a response to the diet of Augsburg in which Charles V ordered all Lutherans to revert to Catholicism.
interpreted luther's "freedom of a christian" as political freedom instead of spiritual. wanted freedom from the slavery of serfdom, so they attack their feudal lords.
a failed attempt to unite the Swiss and german protestants in a mutual defense pact.
radical protestant denomination that rejected infant baptism and were severely persecuted.
extreme Anabaptists rebelled in attempt to turn the government into a theology, but they were just hung in cages.
founded of Mennonites: non-provocative, moderate, pacifistic Anabaptists.
political revolution as foundation of the Swiss Reformation
in Geneva, a political revolution against the local prince-bishop laid the foundation for the religious change.
Geneva, predestination, consistory
a classification the Calvinists gave themselves, an assurance that they had already been chosen by god to go to heaven (predestination),
Diet of Augsburg
an assembly of protestant and catholic representatives who were called to address the growing religious division within the empire.it ended with an order to all Lutherans to revert to Catholicism. (protestant reaction: shmalkaldic league, Augsburg confession)
Peace of Augsburg
made the division of Christendom permanent and established that the ruler of a land would determine its religion.
a seven-year session of the English parliament in the 1500s in which it passed legislation that harassed, and finally placed royal reigns on, the clergy. (under henry VIII.
Act of Succession
made anne boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne of England.
Act of Supremacy
declared Henry VIII the supreme head of the church of England, power over the clergy.
catholic reformers and educators who turned a lot of protestant countries back to catholic countries. extremely obedient to the pope, missionary work.
St. Augustine of Hippo
medieval latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who taught justification by faith alone.
Hans Holbein painted "The Fool", portraying death as a playful, sadist skeleton.
German Dominican preacher known for selling indulgences.
Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz
He wanted to buy the position of archbishop of Mainz so that he could be an elector for the holy roman emperor. (money from fuggers and tetzel)
influential banking family who lent money for rulers to buy their positions
Frederick the Wise
One of the 7 electors, the elector/ ruler of Saxony, founder of the U of wittenberg, luther's protector.
Holy Roman Emperor who died while the reformation was budding, which turned attention away from heresy in Saxony (luther and his 95 theses), to the contest for a new emperor.
leader of the Swiss reformation who became priest in the main church of Zurich. broke lent, everything must have support from the bible.
Ulrich's opinion on the eucharist
bread is bread, wine is wine, and Christ is only there spiritually, not bodily.
founder of Calvinism. In escape from persecution in france (trying to get to Strasbourg), the war between france and spain forced him to turn to Geneva.
Spanish theologian who was condemned by the inquisition for heresy and died at the stake in protestant Geneva (under Calvin's regime) for denying the doctrine of the trinity.
Maurice of Saxony
the ruler of saxony in the 1500s, handpicked by Charles V to enforce Catholicism. He recognized the inevitable and shifted his allegiance to the Lutherans.
English religious reformer who translated the new testament into English.
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
chief minister of king henry VIII who was placed in charge of securing the royal annulment of king henry and cathrine of aragon. He failed and was dismissed in disgrace.
Henry VIII ("Defender of the Faith")
he received this title from pope leo X for defending the seven sacraments against luther. Eventually though, he broke away from the roman catholic church to make the church of england of which he was the head.
Henry's Middle Way (religious conservatism)
Despite the break with rome, henry remained decidedly conservative in his religious beliefs. Besides a few, mild protestant changes, catholic doctrine was maintained.
Catherine of Aragon
the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of spain who married henry and had only one daughter, Mary. Because the marriage was unhappy and henry was obsessed with getting a male heir, he divorced her.
Mary I (Mary Tudor, "Bloody Mary")
daughter of Catherine of Aragon and Henry who ruled over England like a tyrant, forcing everyone to follow devout Catholicism.
Catherine of Aragon's lady in waiting who became Henry VIII's lover. He divorced Catherine of aragon, making himself the head of the church of England just so that he could marry ann. Their daughter was Elizabeth I. Ann was eventually executed for suspected adultery.
mother of Edward VI, died giving birth to him.
Ann of Cleves
one of henry VIII's wives who he married on the advice of Cromwell to create an alliance with the protestant princes of Germany. Henry divorced her and Cromwell was executed.
henry's fifth wife, beheaded for adultery.
his last wife, the only one who survived him, and even married for a fourth time after he died. She was a patron of humanists and reformers.
henry VIII's son and successor who was only ten years old. He ruled under the successive regencies of Edward Seymour and the earl of warwick. During his reign, England enacted protestant reformation. The act of uniformity imposed Thomas canmer's Book of Common Prayer on all English churches.
father of the protestant reformation. planned to study law, but he got caught in a storm and prayed to st. Anne and said that if he survived he'd become a monk. He kept that promise and became an Augustinian monk. He was sent to a new university in Wittenberg in Saxony to teach theology.
Ignatius of Loyola
Very important catholic reformer from spain. He was originally a soldier who was just catholic in name and when wounded in battle he had a sort of epiphany which resulted in a conversion to Catholicism (he also read religious texts while in recovery). He is the founder of the Jesuits.
Edward Seymour (Duke of Somerset)
Edward VI reined under his successive regency.
imitation of christ
A summary of the philosophy of the brothers of the common life in the form of a religious book by Thomas a Kempis.
Luther's ideas and criticism of the church and the sale of indulgences, he nailed it to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg.
"Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation"
Luther's famous summary of economic grievances about the financial and spiritual abuses of the medieval church. Urged the german princes to force reforms on the roman church.
"Freedom of a Christian"
document by martin luther that summarized the new teaching of salvation by faith alone.
pope leo X wrote it saying that martin luther has 60 days to recant what he was saying (95 theses) or he will be excommunicated.
luther's german translation of the bible.
Edict of Worms
declaration of luther as an outlaw. At the german diet of speyer, Charles V agreed to let each german territory enforce the edict of worms, by default giving the german princes territorial sovereignty in religious matters.
Institutes of Christian Religion
considered by many to be the definitive theological statement of the protestant faith, written by john calvin.
a moderate statement of protestant beliefs by the shmalkaldic league that had been rejected by the emperor at the diet of Augsburg.
a strongly worded protestant confession written by luther is response to the verdict at the diet of Augsburg (that all Lutherans revert to Catholicism).
"Ten Articles" (1536)
Religious articles by the king to establish religious unity in England. There were some mild allusions to protestant beliefs, but it was mostly catholic doctrine.
"Six Articles" (1539)
religious doctrines written by Henry VIII because he was angered by the growing popularity of protestant views. These doctrines reaffirmed transubstantiation, along with many other catholic doctrines.
First Act of Uniformity (1549)
under the rein of Edward VI, this law imposed Thomas Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer on all English churches.
Second Act of Uniformity (1552)
act by Edward VI that replaced the Book of Common Prayer authorized by the Act of Uniformity 1549 with a revised and more clearly Protestant version.
Book of Common Prayer
book by Thomas cranmer, the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in England. They were like explicit instructions, in English, on how to proceed in a church service.
Latin for "to the source". The Protestant Reformation called for renewed attention to the Bible as the primary source of Christian faith.
sacramental union= "Real Presence"
Lutheran theological doctrine of the Real Presence: real bodily presence of Christ in the Church during the Eucharist.
state of the holy roman empire where Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, founded the University of Wittenburg in which Martin luther was an important preacher.
Diet of Speyer
The emperor realized he couldn't suppress Lutheranism so he declared that each prince had to right to enforce the edict of worms (the imperial ban placed on Luther), by default giving them some form of territorial sovereignty in religious matters.
cuius regio, eius religio
Latin for "Whose realm, his religion", meaning the religion of the ruler dictated the religion of the ruled, right handed to princes of HRE states by Charles V in the Peace of Augsburg.
breaking of the Lenten fast
Ulrich broke lent by eating sausages in a public place.
Imperial victory (Mühlberg)
battle at Saxony where Catholic princes defeat Protestant princes of the Schmalkaldic League.
Thomas a Kempis
member of the Modern Devotion who wrote "Imitation of Christ", describing how to live as Jesus did.
Sir Thomas More
one of king henry's closest advisors, was executed when he refused to recognize the act of succession.
Pope Clement VII
pope during the late middle ages who invented the "treasury of merit", a concept that states that the church has an infinite reservoir of good works which can be sold to redeem people's sins through letters of indulgence.
one of king henry's closest advisors, wrote the Book of Common Prayer.
"The Babylonian Captivity of the Church"
article by Luther that denies transubstantiation, discusses sacraments, and attacks papacy
"Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants"
Luther expresses his contempt for the peasant's violent revolt and denies any link to their cause.
Apostle Paul of Tarsus
considered by some to be the most influential early Christian missionary who wrote much of the New Testament.
funds paid by the English to priests so that they could sing masses, typically for souls of fallen men.
a Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, andAnglican doctrines and practices.
chief minister of King Henry VIII, one of the strongest advocates of the English Reformation.
Prince Philip of Hesse
called Zwingli and Luther together for the Marburg Colloquy in attempt to unite the swiss and german protestants.
Arthur, Prince of Wales
older brother of Henry VIII, first husband of Catherine of Aragon