Protective Mechanisms of CNS

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What are 4 protective mechs of the CNS?

skull, meningeal layers, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood supply

The meninges protect the ____ and ____:

brain and spinal cord

The meninges consist of 3 fibrous membrane:

dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid

The dura mater is located where:

the outer most membrane

What layer means "tough mother":

dura mater

Which layer adheres to the bones of the skull:

dura mater

The space between the dura mater and the skull is called:

epidural space

The space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane is called:

subdural space

One extension of the dura mater is the:

falx cerebri

The falx cerebri attaches to the:

christa galli and the occipital bone

The middle meningeal layer is the:

arachnoid membrane

The space beneath the arachnoid membrane is the subaracnoid space. It is filled with:

cerebral spinal fluid

At the crown of the brain there are arachnoid granulations. These do what:

absorb cerebral spinal fluid

The inner most layer is:

pia mater

This layer is the most flexible because it is composed of collagen:

pia mater

The pia mater has a network of ________ that penetrate it:

blood vessels

The epidural space between the dura mater and spinal cord is often a place for injections to block what:

pain in the lower bod

The lumbar puncture takes place where:

L2

This layer surround the cord tightly:

pia mater

What is meningitis?

a disease involving inflammation or irritation of the meninges. It may be viral or bacterial

Bacterial meningitis can cause severe illness and brain damage like:

impaired ability to think/learn, hearing loss, loss vision, hydrocephalous

What type of headache is most commonly identified as a migrane:

vascular

This type of vascuar headache can produce a fever:

toxic

This type of vascular headache is genetically linked or there is an abnormality of the hypothalamus:

cluster

This a very rare type of vascular headache:

high blood pressure

This is the most common type of myogenic/muscular headache:

tension

This type of headache originates from disorders of the neck, cervical roots C1-C3

cervicogenic

Traction and inflammatory headaches are associated with:

sinus infections and strokes

What are ventricles:

fluid filled areas

Where are the lateral ventricles located:

both hemispheres

How do the lateral and third ventricles connect:

the cerebral aqueduct at the level of the thalamus

The third and fourth ventricles communicate how:

the level of the pons and cerebellum

Each ventricle has choroid plexus that produce:

cerebral spinal fluid

What is the purpose of cerebral spinal fluid:

to protect the brain from injury

If the arachnoid granulations cannot absorb cerebral spinal fluid it can lead to:

hydrocephalus

What is communicating hyrdrocephalus:

failure of CSF to drain into sinus system

What is non-communicating hydropcephalus:

blockage of the flow of CSF from ventricles to subarachnoid space

What is a characteristic of hydrocephalus:

enlarged or swollen head

Arteries carry blood to the:

brain

Veins return blood to the:

hear

There are 2 types of neuronal response to injury:

retrograde reaction and wallerian degeneration

This is what type of neural response- process that results when a nerve fiber is cut or crushed, in which the part of the axon separated from the neuron's cell body degenerates distal to the injury

Wallerian degeneration

When the cell body swells and the nucleus is displaces this has taken place:

retrograde reaction

What are 4 types of vascular pathologies:

strokes, occlusive vascular pathologies, hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations

What does a blood brain barrier do?

restricts movement of specific substances from the bloodstream to the brain tissue

Loss of GABA is associated with:

Huntington's disease

Alcoholism increases:

serotonin

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