Durkheim referred to patterns of behavior that characterize a social group as ________.
A) a social profile
C) social integration
D) social facts
What distinction did sociologist Frances Perkins hold in American history?
A) She was the first woman president of the American Sociological Association.
B) She won a Nobel Prize for her work with poor women.
C) She was the first woman elected governor.
D) She was the first woman to hold a presidential cabinet position.
she was the first woman to hold a presidential cabinet position
Sociology first took root as an academic discipline at _______ in 1890.
A) the University of Pennsylvania
B) the University of Kansas
C) Stanford University
D) Princeton University
the University of Kansas
The university that dominated sociology as an academic discipline when Albion Small headed the department
A) the University of California at Berkeley
B) Harvard University
C) Princeton University
D) the University of Chicago
the University of Chicago
What did Robert E. Park, Ernest Burgess, and George Herbert Mead have in common?
A) They were among the first faculty members in the sociology department at the University of Chicago.
B) They were all sociologists who won Nobel Prizes for their work in social reform.
C) They all established major disciplines in sociology while at Harvard University.
D) They co-authored the textbook, Principles of Sociology.
they were among the first faculty members in the sociology department at the University of Chicago
Because of her outstanding contributions to social reform, as demonstrated in her work as co-founder of HullHouse, ________ was a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
A) Marion Talbot
B) Charlotte Perkins Gilman
C) Alice Paul
D) Jane Addams
The book published by W. E. B. Du Bois in 1899 that analyzed how African Americans in a major United
States city coped with racism was ________.
A) The Souls of Black Folk
B) White Over Black
C) The Philadelphia Negro
D) The Crisis
The Philadelphia Negro
The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race
relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP, was ________.
A) W. E. B. Du Bois
B) Booker T. Washington
C) George Washington Carver
D) Benjamin Quarles
W.E.B. Du Bois
More than twenty years prior to the birth of Durkheim and Weber, Society in America, an analysis of American
social customs, was published by sociologist ________.
A) W. I. Thomas
B) W. E. B. Du Bois
C) Harriet Martineau
D) Ernest Burgess
The American sociologist who focused on social analysis, developing abstract models showing how parts of
society harmoniously work together, was ________.
A) Talcott Parsons
B) Ernest Burgess
C) Robert E. Park
D) W. I. Thomas
Dr. Zahn's academic interest is analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological
journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(n) ________ sociologist.
C) basic (or pure)
basic (or pure)
The sociologist who developed the concept of the power elite was ________.
A) C. Wright Mills
B) Talcott Parsons
C) Robert K. Merton
D) F. Ivan Nye
C. Wright Mills
During his career, Anthony has worked as a juvenile police officer, corrections counselor in a state prison, and
executive director of an urban redevelopment program. In view of this, which description best describes
Anthony's career path?
A) Anthony has been a pure sociologist.
B) Anthony has assumed the role of being a basic sociologist.
C) Anthony has been an applied sociologist.
D) Anthony has been a social reformer.
Anthony has been an applied sociologist
According to symbolic interactionists, the deciding factor that determines if change in society is good or bad
A) an understanding of who may have benefited from the change
B) an understanding of who may have been victimized by the change
C) a framework or context from which to view the meaning of the change
D) a macroanalytical focus of the extent and duration of the change
a framework or context from which to view the meaning of the change
Sociologists who analyze how social life depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are
most likely ________.
C) conflict theorists
D) symbolic interactionists
Functionalists refer to how parts of a society fit together to form a whole as ________.
A) a symbol
B) a synthesis
C) an integration
D) a structure
The two sociologists who referred to society as being a kind of living organism were _______ and ________.
A) Auguste Comte; Emile Durkheim
B) Karl Marx; Max Weber
C) Auguste Comte; Herbert Spencer
D) Emile Durkheim; Max Weber
Auguste Comte; Herbert Spencer
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups
competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a(n) ________ and John would be seen as a(n)
A) symbolic interactionist; functionalist
B) applied sociologist; functionalist
C) basic sociologist; applied sociologist
D) functionalist; conflict theorist
functionalist; conflict theorist
According to Robert Merton, ________ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
A) latent functions
B) manifest dysfunctions
C) manifest functions
D) latent dysfunctions
College provides a haven for several million potential workers who are classified as "students" rather than
"unemployed," which helps stabilize the job market. This situation represents what Merton would describe as a
A) manifest function
B) latent dysfunction
C) manifest dysfunction
D) latent function
The contemporary conflict sociologist who pointed out that conflict is most likely to develop among people in
close relationships was ________.
A) Lewis Coser
B) Ralf Dahrendorf
C) William Domhoff
D) Howard Winet
Sue is an expert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, and expressions people make in their daily
interactions. In view of this, how would Sue's expertise be defined?
A) Sue is a social linguist.
B) Sue is an expert in multiculturalism.
C) Sue recognizes the importance of globalization.
D) Sue is an expert in nonverbal interaction.
Sue is an expert in nonverbal interaction
Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ________ explain the high divorce rates in the United States.
A) the functions of the family
B) our culture's beliefs about marriage
C) the male-female power relationship
D) our attitudes about commitment
the male-female power relationship
Which groups of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of
A) symbolic interactionists and structural functionalists
B) symbolic interactionists and conflict theorists
C) conflict theorists and structural functionalists
D) conflict theorists and symbolic interactionists
conflict theorists and structural functionalists
Cindy is interested in how the movement of Maytag production plants and other industries from the Midwest
to Mexico has changed the lives of thousands of unemployed workers and their communities. Cindy is
conducting a ________ analysis.
Courtney raises champion sheep, Joe is a cab driver in New York, and Rufus is a member of the RAW family
of professional wrestling. What do Courtney, Joe, and Rufus have in common?
A) They are all members of countercultures.
B) They are all engaged in ethnocentrism.
C) They are all practicing cultural relativism.
D) They are all members of subcultures.
they are all members of subcultures
All of the following statements are examples of countercultures, EXCEPT for which one?
A) bikers in an outlaw motorcycle club
B) Chicago Cubs fans
C) individuals advocating the legalization of prostitution
D) gang members operating in the San Quentin prison
Chicago Cubs fans
From a sociological perspective, which statement best classifies 19th century Mormons and 21st century
A) Both would be classified as subcultures.
B) Both would be classified as countercultures.
C) The Mormons would be classified a counterculture and the physicians as a subculture.
D) The Mormons would be classified a subculture and the physicians as a counterculture.
the Mormons would be classified a counterculture and the physicians as a subculture
Good nutrition, medical care, comfortable housing, and a nice car are included in a classification of
values in American society that sociologist Robin Williams would call ________.
A) achievement and success
C) material comfort
D) efficiency and practicality
People from all walks of life, races, religions, and ethnic groups participate in the U.S. legislative process. In
view of this, which term best describes American society?
A) America is a polytheistic society.
B) America is a society of subcultures and countercultures.
C) America is a pluralistic society.
D) America is based on the principles of oligarchy.
America is a pluralistic society
Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and
scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by
sociologist Robin Williams?
A) efficiency and practicality
B) achievement and success
C) group superiority
achievement and success
The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was ________.
A) Michael Burawoy
B) Edward Wilson
C) Robin Williams
D) John Jacob Natzke
JoEllen Shively, a Native American sociologist, discovered that Native Americans tended to identify with the
cowboys rather than the Indians when they watched Western movies. Her findings illustrate that ________ play(s)
a crucial role in group identification.
The author added three values to the original list of ten core values that Robin Williams identified as the most
common in American society. Which of the following is NOT one of the three values added?
D) romantic love
Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for
people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the
armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In view of this, which statement best
A) Lamont holds a value cluster of achievement and success, equality, and freedom.
B) Lamont is suffering from value strain.
C) Lamont is a victim of role conflict due to his multiple statuses.
D) Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.
Lamont is engaged in value contradiction
Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and efficiency as desired qualities. Where one of these
qualities is found, the other two also apply. This is an example of ________.
A) emergent values
B) a value cluster
C) cultural leveling
D) a normative cluster
a value cluster
Several years ago, the gay community applied for a permit to march in the St. Patrick Day's Parade in Boston.
When denied, the gay community filed suit and won. Rather than permitting the gay community to march in
the parade, the parade trustees cancelled the event. Sociologists would suggest this conflict in values between
the trustees of the parade and the gay community would eventually lead to ________.
A) consensus that gays are evil because they caused a traditional event to be cancelled
B) social change that brings attention to gay rights and eventual acceptance
C) social integration of the gay and straight communities resulting in a bisexual society
D) armed conflict, or "cultural war, " between the gay and straight communities
armed conflict, or "cultural war," between the gay and straight communities
Sociologists have identified an emerging set of five interrelated values in American society. What are these
A) self-destiny, spirituality, environmental concern, technological awareness, and physical fitness
B) leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern
C) freedom, equality, romantic love, youthfulness, and physical fitness
D) romantic love, individualism, mental health, self-fulfillment, and equality
leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern
Of the five interrelated core values emerging in American society, the one that is reflected in the "human
potential" movement that focuses on "self help, relating, and personal development" is ________.
B) romantic love
C) physical fitness
Many fundamentalist Christians lobby for laws making same-sex marriage illegal. Gays and lesbians consider
same-sex relationships and same-sex marriage as basic human rights. Which concept best describes the
relationship between these fundamentalist Christians and the gay/lesbian community?
A) culture shock on both sides
B) differences in norms and folkways
C) different symbols and languages
D) culture war due to conflicting values
culture war due to conflicting values
Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with
honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and
A) material culture; symbolic culture
B) ideal culture; real culture
C) real culture; symbolic culture
D) unrealistic culture; realistic culture
ideal culture; real culture
The anthropologist who gathered data on hundreds of groups around the world to compare their customs, and
then concluded that specific customs differed from one group to another, was ________.
A) Benjamin Whorf
B) Edward Wilson
C) Edward Sapir
D) George Murdock
The concept of natural selection, which proposed that genes of a species are not distributed evenly among the
offspring, thus enabling certain members of the species to survive while others die out, was developed by
A) Charles Darwin
B) Herbert Spencer
C) William Ogburn
D) Edmund Wilson
Pigs, spiders, elephants, and other animals that rely solely on instinct act as they do because they lack a
A) cerebral cortex
C) central nervous system
D) moral compass
Three of the following terms are interchangeable. Which one does NOT belong with the other three?
C) social learning
D) evolutionary psychology
Peter Conrad noted that all homosexuals do not have the "gay gene" and that many men with the "gay gene"
are not homosexual. Which position is Conrad embracing?
A) ideal culture as opposed to real culture
B) influence of sociobiology as opposed to culture
C) natural selection in determining human behavior
D) dominant sociological position on behavior acquisition
dominant sociological position on behavior acquisition
The automobile, and the skills needed to drive it, would be an example of ________.
A) nonmaterial culture
C) cultural leveling
D) cultural adaptation
The emerging tools and the skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called
A) nonmaterial culture
B) cultural lag
C) sociocultural evolution
D) new technology
The term "cultural lag," referring to the varying ________ among elements within cultures, was coined by
A) countercultures; Talcott Parsons
B) subcultures; Douglas Massey
C) rates of change; William Ogburn
D) types of symbols; Edmund Wilson
rates of change; William Ogburn
Today we can type our symptoms into a computer search engine and often find out why we are sick, what
condition we may have, and how we might treat it. But we still go to see a doctor. This is an example of
A) cultural lag
B) cultural leveling
C) ideal culture versus real culture
D) cultural norms versus cultural folkways
In psychoanalytic theory, the "culture within us" is represented by the ________.
In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and
only personal needs to be satisfied is the ________ stage.
In developing his theory on moral development, when did Kohlberg claim most people reach the
A) Most people reach this stage shortly after birth.
B) Most people reach this stage after passing through puberty.
C) Most people reach this stage during the "midlife crisis."
D) Most people do not reach this stage.
most people do not reach this stage
The social scientist who criticized the theory of Lawrence Kohlberg and developed an alternative theory on the
development of morality based on personal relationships was ________.
A) Jane Addams
B) Margaret Sanger
C) Carol Gilligan
D) Margaret Mead
What is the proposed source of the six specific emotions that Paul Ekman identified as being present in all
A) They are based on the social environment.
B) They are a product of our genes.
C) They are based on common cultural values held worldwide.
D) They are based on intellectual capability.
they are a product of our genes [anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise]
What conclusion did psychologists Susan Goldberg and Michael Lewis make after observing the interactions
of mothers and their children?
A) Mothers socialized their sons to be passive and dependent.
B) Mothers tended to treat their children the same, regardless of sex.
C) Mothers unconsciously rewarded their daughters for being dependent.
D) Mothers felt their sons needed greater supervision when they played.
mothers unconsciously rewarded their daughters for being dependent
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a
Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by
B) role diffusion
C) ego identity
D) gender socialization
A young woman is contemplating a particular behavior, in this case, dropping out of college. She is also
considering an awareness of the self in relationship to others to avoid feelings of shame and embarrassment.
This is referred to as her ________.
A) socialized self as subject
B) self-actualized stage
C) social mirror
D) reality principle
Individuals who are approximately the same age and are linked by common interests, including friends,
classmates, and the "kids in the neighborhood," are most appropriately referred to as ________.
A) significant others
B) generalized others
How does the mass media influence gender roles in contemporary American society?
A) It encourages a sexless society.
B) It encourages women to assume male roles to be successful.
C) It reinforces gender roles considered appropriate for one's sex.
D) It encourages cross-gender behavior.
it reinforces gender roles considered appropriate for one's sex
Traditionally, statuses occupied by men (father, husband) are given greater prestige than those occupied by
women (mother, wife). This awarding of privilege and prestige to one group while denying it to the other is
A) social imperative
B) social inequality
C) social solidarity
D) social integration
People and groups that influence our orientation to life - our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors -
are called ________.
A) total institutions
B) generalized others
C) agents of socialization
agents of socialization
Video games have begun to portray women in changing gender roles, such as Lara Croft, the adventureseeking archaeologist, and Xena, Warrior Princess. This change in roles may also serve as ________.
A) an example of pornography
B) a way to confuse children about their sexuality
C) a way to motivate young women to play video games
D) the creation of a new stereotype of women as symbolic males
the creation of a new stereotype of women as symbolic males
Frank is the son of a middle-class family. He took the family car without permission last night, returning home
at 3 AM with the smell of alcohol on his breath. It is most likely, based on the research of Kohn, that the next
day Frank's parents will ________.
A) call the police and have their son arrested to impress upon him the error of his ways
B) buy him his own car and hold him to a higher standard of responsibility
C) physically punish their son using a culturally approved method
D) suspend Frank's driving privileges for a month and discuss with Frank the dangers of drinking and
suspended Frank's driving privileges for a month and discuss with Frank the dangers of drinking and driving
Based on the research of Kohn and his associates, how would working-class parents encourage their children
to accept guidance when they have deviated from acting properly?
A) They would probably use physical punishment.
B) They would rely on reasoning with the child.
C) They would probably deny privileges and "ground" the child.
D) They would offer verbal encouragement.
they would probably use physical punishment
What was the result of research on mother-child bonding based on hours per week children spent in day care?
A) As the number of hours in day care increased, the bond was stronger between mother and child.
B) As the number of hours in day care increased, the bond was weaker between mother and child.
C) The mother-child bond was based on the social class of the mother and not the hours the child spent in
D) There was no relationship between mother-child bond and the hours a child spent in day care.
as the number of hours in day care increased, the bond was weaker between the mother and child
Although formal education is intended to transmit knowledge and skills, it unintentionally teaches students that
the same rules apply to everyone. This universality reflects what sociologists describe as ________.
A) a signaling system
B) a pattern variable
C) a latent function
D) a manifest function
a latent function
As a third grader, Henry is reading stories about the American Revolution and how the early Americans were
willing to fight to gain their freedom. According to conflict theorists, Henry is not only learning to read, but is
also absorbing lessons in patriotism and democracy. These lessons would be referred to by conflict theorists as
A) a latent dysfunction of U.S. education
B) a part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools
C) a manifest function of education
D) a manifest dysfunction of education
a part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools
Frankie and Johnnie are both above-average students, but they feel that they learn much more about life,
success, and relationships with others from other students outside of the classroom. In this sense, Frankie and
Johnnie are relying on the ________ for their education.
A) hidden curriculum
B) corridor curriculum
C) manifest function
D) latent function
When young people enter college as resident students, they must learn new norms, values, attitudes, and
behaviors. This is an example of ________.
C) the "looking-glass self"
D) anticipatory socialization
Fred has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to cook for the fraternity brothers,
clean the frat house, and address the fraternity members as "sir." This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel
A) learning conformity
B) a personal identity kit
C) anticipatory socialization
D) a degradation ceremony
a degradation ceremony
Professor Murphy, an anthropologist, always wears his field vest to class. In it he seems to have everything he
needs, including chalk, tape, pens and pencils, duct tape, a notebook, scissors, a magnifying glass, and many other
"tools of the trade." Because he is never seen on campus without it, Professor Murphy's field vest serves as his
A) badge of honor
B) security blanket
C) trade uniform
D) personal identity kit
personal identity kit
What are the starting and stopping points of the development of the self during the life course?
A) The self-concept begins prior to conception and concludes at birth.
B) The self-concept begins at birth and concludes by age 5 or 6.
C) The self-concept begins at birth and continues as a life-long process until death.
D) The self-concept begins when a child is able to reason and concludes at about age 18.
the self-concept begins at birth and continues as a life-long process until death
What term applies to the stages that people pass through from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and
concluding with "the older years"?
A) rites of passage
B) life theme
C) the life course
D) stages of development
the life course
Another term used for the stage of development called transitional adulthood, which is between the ages of 18
and 29, is ________.
A) the middle years
C) the sandwich generation
D) mid-life crisis
Basic needs that a society must meet in order to survive, which include replacement of members, preserving
order, and socializing new members, are referred to as ________.
A) functional requisites
B) cultural goals
C) societal mandates
D) symbolic needs
All of the following represent one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive
EXCEPT for which one?
A) replacing members
B) socializing new members
C) maintaining traditional gender relations
D) providing a sense of purpose
maintaining traditional gender relations
Theorists who would argue that the mass media represents the interests of society's political and economic
elites would be most aligned with the ________ perspective.
B) symbolic interactionist
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized.
People begin to depend upon one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion was a
concept that he termed ________.
B) organic solidarity
C) mechanical solidarity
As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on some standardized characteristic such as
age or sex. This is referred to as ________.
A) social solidarity
B) social imperative
C) division of labor
D) class structure
division of labor
What term does Durkheim use to describe the degree to which members of a society are united by shared
values and other social bonds?
A) social stratification
B) social class
C) social imperative
D) social integration
Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinschaft as ________ solidarity is to Gesellschaft.
Based on Durkheim's classification of society, the Old Order Amish would fall into which category?
A) mechanical solidarity
B) organic solidarity
Ferdinand Tönnies' term for the type of society he referred to as the "intimate community" was ________. The
term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ________.
A) mechanical society; organic society
B) Gesellschaft; Gemeinschaft
C) organic society; mechanical society
D) Gemeinschaft; Gesellschaft
In what three states do 75 percent of the Old Order Amish live?
A) Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana
B) Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia
C) Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin
D) Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana
Believing that all football players are academically challenged, that all African Americans are great athletes,
and that all women can cook well are examples of ________.
A) culture shock
B) the relativist fallacy
D) cultural relativism
Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front
of the other chairs. Hilda is trying to extend her ________ so others do not invade it.
A) intimate space
B) personal space
C) social space
D) public space
The anthropologist recognized for his work on personal space was ________.
A) Talcott Parsons
B) Edward Hall
C) William I. Thomas
D) Robert K. Merton
Which of the following statements best describes how stereotypes affect our interaction with others when we
A) Stereotypes are usually based on objective facts and hold true.
B) Stereotypes are rarely important in social interaction.
C) Stereotypes provide accurate information about what the person is like.
D) Stereotypes are the assumptions we make that can become self-fulfilling prophecies.
stereotypes are the assumptions we make that can become self-fulfilling prophecies
Jackie enjoys having her boyfriend Seth hold her close when they are watching television. She appreciates it
when Professor Jones maintains a distance of at least two feet from her while he assists her with her tutoring.
In view of this, which statement applies to the relationships that Jackie shares with Seth and with her
A) Seth is enjoying intimate distance and the professor is at public distance.
B) Seth is enjoying social distance and the professor is at public distance.
C) Seth is enjoying intimate distance and the professor is at personal distance.
D) Seth is enjoying social distance and the professor is at personal distance.
seth is enjoying intimate distance and the professor is at personal distance
Facial expressions, posture, and gestures are all examples of ________.
A) body language
B) personal images
D) role performance
An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called ________.
B) functional analysis
D) phenomenological analysis
The presentation of self in everyday life, also called dramaturgy, was developed by ________.
A) Talcott Parsons
B) Edwin Sutherland
C) Erving Goffman
D) Travis Hirschi
Officer Friel has just pulled over a motorist exceeding the speed limit by 40 miles per hour. When he
approached the vehicle, he recognizes the driver as his best friend's daughter. Officer Friel is aware that the
young lady has had some money problems and the last thing she can afford is a $200 speeding ticket that will
also raise her insurance rates. At this point, which of the following terms best describes the position facing
A) Officer Friel is experiencing role strain.
B) Officer Friel is experiencing role conflict.
C) Officer Friel is now engaged in role reversal.
D) Officer Friel is faced with status inconsistency.
Officer Friel is experiencing role conflict
When we communicate information about ourselves, we use the social setting, our appearance, and our
manners to make impressions on others. Erving Goffman referred to these methods as ________.
B) status symbols
D) role cues
Anthony, a retired Army officer, is a professor of sociology at a small state university. During the Vietnam
War, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and he usually wears a small ribbon on the lapel of his suit coat
denoting this. He also wears his West Point ring from the class of 1965. Using the terminology of dramaturgy,
the lapel pin and class ring would be classified as ________.
B) background assumptions
C) role performances
Based on dramaturgy, what is the definition of social setting?
A) the sign-vehicle where action unfolds
B) the players involved in the production
C) the audience viewing what transpires
D) the scenery that is a part of the social environment
the sign-vehicle where action unfolds
To show ourselves as expert role players and to gain positive recognition from others, we often have additional
people work with us to ensure that our role communicates to others the ideas that we want them to form about
us. This is referred to as ________.
D) social manipulation
A face-saving technique in which all parties involved in an embarrassing situation ignore it and continue their
conversation or interaction as though the embarrassing situation never happened is referred to as ________.
A) redefining the situation
C) studied nonobservance
D) impression management
In ethnomethodology, the ideas we take for granted that underlie our behavior and that we violate at our risk
are called ________.
A) background assumptions
B) social facts
C) social traits