Chapter 9: Joints

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Functionally, why are sutures classified as synarthroses, and syndesmoses as amphiarthroses?

Functionally, sutures are classified as synarthroses because they are immovable; syndesmoses are classified as amphiarthroses because they are slightly movable.

What is the structural difference between a synchondrosis and a symphysis?

The structural difference between a synchondrosis and a symphysis is the type of cartilage that holds the joint together: hyaline cartilage in a synchondrosis and fibrocartilage in a symphysis.

What is the functional classification of synovial joints?

Functionally, synovial joints are diarthroses, freely movable joints.

What are two examples of joints that permit gliding movements?

Gliding movements occur at intercarpal and at intertarsal joints.

What are two examples of flexion that do not occur along the sagittal plane?

Two examples of flexion that do not occur along the sagittal plane are flexion of the thumb and lateral flexion of the trunk.

In what way is considering adduction as "adding your limb to your trunk" an effective learning device?

When you adduct your arm or leg, you bring it closer to the midline of the body, thus "adding" it to the trunk.

Which movements in continuous sequence produce circumduction?

Circumduction involves flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, and rotation in a continuous sequence (or in the opposite order).

How do medial and lateral rotation differ?

The anterior surface of a bone or limb rotates toward the midline in medial rotation, and away from the midline in lateral rotation.

What movement of the shoulder girdle occurs when you bring your arms forward until the elbows touch?

Bringing your arms forward until the elbows touch is an example of protraction.

Which types of synovial joints are biaxial?

Many plane, saddle, and condyloid joints are biaxial joints.

Which ligament prevents displacement of the mandible?

The lateral ligament prevents displacement of the mandible.

Why does the shoulder joint have more freedom of movement than any other joint of the body?

The shoulder joint is the most freely movable joint in the body because of the looseness of its articular capsule and the shallowness of the glenoid cavity in relation to the size of the head of the humerus.

Which movements are possible at a hinge joint?

A hinge joint permits flexion and extension.

Which ligaments limit the degree of extension that is possible at the hip joint?

Tension in three ligaments - iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral - limits the degree of extension at the hip joint.

What movement occurs at the knee joint when the quadriceps femoris (anterior thigh) muscles contract?

Contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle causes extension at the knee joint.

What is the purpose of arthroplasty?

The purpose of arthroplasty is to relieve joint pain and permit greater range of motion.

The epiphyseal plate in a long bone is an example of this type of joint.

Synchondrosis

Which is a type of firbous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular firbrous connective tissue found between the bones of the skull?

Suture

True or False: The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.

False

This type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue:

Fibrous Joints

This type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue:

Fibrous Joint

True or False: The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.

True

Where do most of the symphyses in the human body occur?

Axial Skeleton

Which types of joints do NOT have a synovial cavity

Fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints

In this type of fibrous joint, the connective tissues is typically arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet

Syndesmoses

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.

Hyaline Cartilage

What are menisci?

Semilunar Cartilage Pads

A condyloid joint

Is also called an ellipsoidal joint, is considered to be biaxial, allows both flexion-extension and abduction-adduction of the joint, and can be found in the wrist.

Bursae are saclike structures that are commonly found between bone and

Skin, muscle, ligaments, and tendons.

This type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue.

Fibrous Joints

Which types of joints do NOT have a synovial cavity?

Fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints

This functional class of joints contains joints that are freely movable.

Diarthrosis

Which is a type of fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue found between the bones of the skull?

Suture

The functional joint classification that a suture joint fits into is

Synarthrosis

In this type of fibrous joint, the connective tissue is typically arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet.

Syndesmoses

Which type of joint is also called a dentoalveolar joint?

Gomphosis

Which joints are classified as a synarthrosis joint in adults?

Gomphosis, Synchondrosis, and Suture

The epiphyseal plate in a long bone is an example of this type of joint.

Synchondrosis

The joint between the first rib and the manubrium of the sternum is classified as

A synchondrosis, a synarthrosis, and a cartilaginous joint.

Where do all the symphysis joints in the human body occur?

Axial Skeleton

What are some common characteristics of synovial joints?

Contain a joint cavity, are freely movable, articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, and have ligaments holding the joint together.

What are ligaments made out of?

Dense regular connective tissue

Some examples of these structures include the fibular and tibial collateral ligaments of the knee joint.

Extracapsular Ligaments

Another term for menisci is

Articular Discs

What is the function of articular discs?

Maintain the stability of a joint and direct flow of the synovial fluid to areas of greatest friction.

Which structures are used to reduce friction in joints?

Bursae, synovial fluid, and tendon sheaths.

Which structures are used to reduce friction in joints?

Tendon sheaths, synovial fluid, and bursae.

This type of motion results from relatively flat bone surfaces moving back and forth and from side to side with respect to one another.

Gliding

This is a type of movement where there is a decrease in the angle between articulating bones.

Flexion

Bending the trunk forward at the intervertebral discs is an example of what type of angular movement?

Flexion

Examples of this type of movement include moving the humerus laterally at the shoulder joint.

Abduction

This type of complex movement involves a continuous sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction resulting in a distal body part moving in a circle.

Circumduction

What are "special movements" that occur at only certain joints?

Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, and opposition.

Which bones can be elevated or depressed?

Mandible, scapula, clavicle, hyoid, and ribs.

This special movement occurs when you bend your foot at the ankle in the direction of the foot's superior surface as would occur when you stand on your heels.

Dorsiflexion

This special movement involves moving your thumb across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand.

Opposition

What are the structural categories of synovial joints?

Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket.

In this type of synovial joint, a rounded or pointed surface on one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.

Pivot Joint

A condyloid joint

Is also called an ellipsodial joint, is considered to be biaxial, allows both flexion-extension and abduction-adduction of the joint, and can be found in the wrist.

Which term refers to the span, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved?

Range of Motion

What factors affect range of motion of a joint?

Structure of articulating bones, tension of muscles, hormones, and disuse.

What is a degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost due to a combination of aging, obesity, wear and abrasion of the joints?

Osteoarthritis

What is an autoimmune disease that affects the joints?

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Which disease is characterized by sodium urate crystals being deposited in the soft tissues of joints?

Gouty Arthritis

What results from a forceful wrenching or twisting of a joint that tears or stretches its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones?

Sprain

Based on the structural classification of joints, which types of joints are fibrous joints?

Sutures, syndesmoses, and interosseous membranes.

A condition in which a muscle or muscle and tendon is stretched or partially torn is called

A Strain

This ligament limits hyperextension of the knee and prevents the anterior sliding of the tibia on the femur.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

This ligament prevents the posterior sliding of the tibia when the knee is flexed.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

Tennis elbow, a condition in which the tendon sheaths, tendons, and synovial membranes of the elbow are inflamed, is an example of a repetitive motion condition called

Tenosynovitis

Bursae are saclike structures that are commonly found between bone and

Skin, muscle, ligaments, and tendons.

The hormone relaxin stimulates changes that lead to increased range of motion in the

Pubic Symphysis

Disuse of a limb, like would occur when the limb is in a cast, leads to muscular atrophy and __________ of the affected joint.

Decreased Range of Motion

In the United States, the two joints that are most commonly replaced by arthroplasty are

Hip and Knee

Which features are part of the knee joint?

Articular capsule, medial and lateral patellar retinacula, patellar ligament, oblique popliteal ligament, arcuate popliteal ligament, lateral collateral ligament, medial collateral ligament, intracapsular ligaments (ACL and PCL), articular discs (medial and lateral menisci), and bursae (prepatellar, infrapatellar, and suprapatellar).

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