Culture & Reform: Chapter 12

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Chapter 12 in Alan Brinkley's American History: A Survey

decline of merchant capitalism

merchants discovered more profit in manufacturing than in trade

Industrial apitalists

new ruling class; the aristocrats of the northeast

Lowell System

enlisted young teenaged women

decline of Lowell

wages declined, hours lengthened, conditions deteriorated, overcrowded

immigrant labor

large labor supply, cheap, unfamiliar with their new country

decline of tobacco

market unstable; exhausted land

short staple cotton

hardier and coarser; grow in variety of climates and soils

lower south

cotton production dominated; "cotton kingdom";

colonial dependency

South relied on the North; south profited from it's agricultural system; fully invested in it so there was nothing left to invest in industrial or commercial economy; climate of south better suited agriculture than industry; southerners lazier?

cavalier image

southerners believed themselves to be based on traditional values of chivalry, leisure, and elegance

yankees

the yankees of the north were more concerned with rapid growth and development rather than the refined and gracious way of life

planter aristocracy

the wealthy plantation owners with many slaves stood at the head of society determining the political, economical, and social aspects of society; they were the face of the south

cult of honor

avenging insults was a social necessity, especially to do so for women

the southern lady

centered in the home; companions and hostesses to their husbands and nurturing mothers to children; rarely engage in public activities or find income-producing work

southern status of women

"women, like children, have but one right, and that is the right to protection. the right to protection involves the obligation to obey."

walt whitman

romanticism; son of carpenter and traveled all over doing many odd jobs until he finally published his first work 'leaves of grass'

Leaves of Grass

Whitman's first volume of work; poems were a celebration of democracy, liberation of the individual

Moby Dick

Melville in 1851; portrayed Ahab, story of courage and the strength of the individual but also tragedy of pride and revenge

Edgar Allen Poe

Author of sad and macabre stories and poems, Tamerlane and The Raven; explored the deeper painful world of the spirit and emotions

reason vs. understanding

reason: the individual's innate capacity to grasp beauty and truth through giving full expression to the instincts and emotions. understanding: use of intellect in the narrow and artificial ways imposed by society, repression of instinct

Ralph Waldo Wmerson

leader of the transcendentalists; most important intellectual of his age; nationalist

Nature

Emerson's best known essay 1836; in the quest for self-fulfillment individuals should work for a common communion with the natural world

Henry David Thoreau

next to Emerson, leading transcendentalist; wrote about repressive forces of society

Walden

Thoreau's most famous book 1854; led him to live in a small cabin; living simply

civil disobedience

a public refusal to obey unjust laws

Brook Farm

Boston transcendentalist George Ripley established this community as an experimental community in West Roxbury, Mass.; Socialist

Nathaniel Hawthorne

original resident of Brook Farm; wrote the Blithedale Romance portraying disastrous experiment; the scarlet letter; the house of seven gables

charles fourier

ideas of socialist communities organized as cooperative phalanxes

Robert Owen

Scottish industrialist; founded new experimental community in indiana in 1825, a "village of cooperation" but was economic failure

John Humphrey Noyes

established the Oneida community in 1848 in upstate New York

Oneida

everyone married to everyone

Shakers

founded by "Mother" Ann Lee; celibacy; sexual equality; god either male or female

American Colonization Society

society that promoted the effort to encourage the resettlement of blacks in africa or the caribbean

Liberia

nation established by the relocatet slaves in 1830; named capital after monroe (monrovia)

Failure of colonization

not enough funding, relocated fewer slaves than were born in the US in a month; blacks did not want to move to the unfamiliar country

William Lloyd Garrison- The Liberator

grew tired of Lundy's moderate tone and decided to found his own weekly newspaper called the liberator; called for immediate abolition; founded the New England Antislavery Society and American Antislavery Society

American Antislavery Society

Garrison founded in 1833; membership mushroomed; antislavery sentiment growing

David Walker

free black from Boston-published this harsh pamphlet "cut our master's throats"

Frederick Douglas

published North Star

Elijah Lovejoy

editor of abolitionist newspaper in Illinois; repeated victim of mob violence; shot and killed when whites invaded his press a 4th time and burnt it

Amistad Case

africans destined for slavery in cuba seized a ship and tried to sail it to africa but the US navy seized it and held the africans as pirates; court declared them free because of the international slave trade had been illegal

Harriet Beecher Stowe

author of uncle tom's cabin; influential abolitionist

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Stowe's powerful abolitionist book; remarkable bestseller

personal liberty laws

forbade state officials to assist in the capture and return of fugitive slaves

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