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Nature vs. Nurture

Controversy as to which has more effect, genetics or the environment when attempting to explain human behavior

Cell

basic structural unit of a living thing

Nucleus

inner area of a cell that contains chromosomes and genes

Chromosomes

rod shaped structures that carry genes (thread like strands of DNA)

Genes

basic building blocks of heredity, determine our individual biological development

DNA

a spiraling, complex molecule containing genes

Nucleotides

biochemical sequences that defines genes

Genome

Common sequence of nucleotide letters that are within human DNA a profile that makes us human

Gene Complexes

Groups of genes that determine human traits. (behaviors)

Linkage Studies

Look for patterns of inheritance of genetic markers in large families in which a particular condition is common

Genetic Markers

A segment of DNA that varies among individuals and has a known location on a chromosome and can function as a genetic land mark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition.

Molecular Genetics

Molecular structure and function of genes (identify the specific genes that influence behavior)

Charles Darwin

The idea that traits that help lead to increased survival or reproduction will most likely be passed on to future generation.

Mutation

error in gene replication

Evolutionary psychology

study of evolution of behavior using the principle of natural selection

Sociobiology

emphasizes an evolutionary explanation of social behavior

Gender

Socially learned behaviors and expectations that are associated with the two sexes

Sex

Physical features signifying that one is either a male or female

Behavior Genetics

Genetic and environmental influences on behavior (study individual differences)

Environment

Every non-genetic influence

Identical twins

Develop from a single egg that splits; genetically idetical

Fraternal twins

develps from two seperate eggs

Concordance (Concordance Rates)

The degree o similarity in pairs of twins with respect to the presence of absence of a particular disease or trait.

Seperated Twins

-Share Personality Traits
_Identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins

Temperament

Inborn emotional excitability
Jerome Kagan

Reactive

Intense, fidgety, excitable, nervous; may have symptoms of anxiety in later years

Non-reactive

easy-going, quiet, placid; easygoing and extroverted in later years

New York Longitudinal Study

(Chess and Thomas 1996)
EAsy going children: 40%
- playful and respond positively to new stimuli
Difficult Children
-react negatively to new situations or people, irritable disposition, difficult time establishing sleeping and eating schedules.
Slow-to warmup
-inhibited children low activity levels, avoid novel stimuli, require more time to adjust, react to unfamiliar situations by becoming withdrawn.

Interaction

gene-environmental interaction

Molecular Genetics

Molecular structure and function fo genes

PArents

10% influence their children
political affiliatioin
religion

Experience and Brain Development

The more you work your brain the more extensive your brain can be

PEer influence

May exceed parental influences

Culture

Food you eat, language, adn accent

Norms

Rules for accepted and expected behavior

Personal space

Buffer Zone

MEmes

self-replicating ideas, fashion, and innovations passed from person to person

X Chromosome

Sex chromosomes found in both females and males
Men have one females have two

Y chromosomes

sex chromosome found in only lales

Testosterone

Male sex hormone

Role

A set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in a position out to behave

Gender Role

a set of expected behaviors for males and females

Gender identity

one's sense of being male of female

Gender-typed

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

Social Learning Theory

We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punsihed

Social-cognitive theory

How we form our conceptions and perceptions based on social context

Gender Schema Theory

We learn from our cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and we adjust our behavior accordingly

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