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A proposition of value is

a statement that either asserts something is better than something else or presumes what is right and what is wrong, or what is good and what is bad.

People of this culture tend to place great stock in eyewitness testimony:

North American

It is possible for a speaker who would like to change his audience's ____ to do it, if he or she provides the right evidence.

attitudes

Cognitive dissonance is

the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns.

In her speech, Amy points out the physical and mental benefits of drinking green tea. What type of motivation is Amy using?

positive motivation

Kendra had decided to vote for one presidential candidate. Then the next week she changed her mind. What did she change?

her attitudes

Harry goes to several car dealers to try to get the best deal on a new car. At one dealer, he meets a sales representative he really likes. Tina is funny, warm, and seems like she is giving him the real story about the car she is selling. What factor is persuading Harry to buy the car from Tina's dealership?

ethos

Which of the following is most enduring, and therefore least susceptible to persuasive attempts?

values

Cognitive dissonance means that you are experiencing a way of thinking that is

uncomfortable

Which of the following is an example of using the hierarchy of needs as a motivator?

You could be the envy of people you know if you purchase this new, sleek sports car. You will be perceived as a person of high status in your community.

Connor's friend is trying to persuade him to lend him some money. He tells him "I need the money so that I can take my mother to the doctor. Come on, buddy, isn't that what friends are for?" What general method is Connor using to persuade his friend to lend him the money?

pathos

This type of proposition is most likely to use the word "should":

a proposition of policy

A speaker tells his audience "You should take a course in public speaking because it will increase your prospects of getting a good job. Effective communication skills are the most sought-after skills in today's workplace." This is an example of

positive motivation

This theory suggests that when listeners are confronted with a persuasive message, their responses can be classified into one of three categories ranging from acceptance to rejection.

social judgement theory

There are more terrorist attacks in the world today than at any previous time in human history. This is an example of a

proposition of fact

The highest level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is

self-actualization.

An example of a proposition of fact is:

The Electoral College is a better way to elect presidents than is direct popular vote.

Texas is bigger than Poland is a proposition of

fact

A proposition of policy is a statement

that advocates a change in a procedure or behavior.

According to the text, the use of fear appeals will be more successful if all of the following are true, except:t

here is no action that the listeners can take.

Chris likes to motivate people by telling them that if they become one of his personal training clients they will be the envy of everyone they know, and will receive a lot of attention from the opposite sex with their new physique. What method does Chris use to get his audience to listen to his persuasive message?

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Chris knows that her audience members believe in reducing the amount of waste that goes into landfills. However, Chris also knows that her audience members do not recycle. When she reminds them of this inconsistency in beliefs and behaviors, they are likely to experience

cognitive dissonance.

A belief is

typically based on past experiences

Negative motivation is

when people seek to avoid pain and discomfort. They will be motivated to support what a speaker advocates if they are convinced that bad things will happen to them unless they do.

Which is easiest to change in your audience?

an attitude

The principle of selective exposure suggests that

we can only hear one speaker at a time

Attitudes are

easier to change than beliefs

It is better for college students to carry concealed weapons than for criminals to come into classrooms and take innocent lives. This is an example of a

proposition of value

The average person is subjected to more than ___ attempts at persuasion each day.

600

Persuasion is

the process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.

When addressing an unreceptive audience, it is best to do all of the following, except:

try not to acknowledge opposing points of views until after the speech.

When speaking to an unreceptive audience, it is best to

begin your speech by noting areas of agreement before noting areas of disagreement..

I. The high national debt is caused by too little tax revenue and too much government spending.II. The high national debt will increase both inflation and unemployment.This is an example of

cause and effect organization.

am has decided she should capture her listeners' attention early in her speech and then refer to beliefs that many listeners share. She is probably dealing with a(n)

neutral audience

Deductive reasoning is

reasoning that moves from a general statement of principle to a specific certain conclusion.

Michael has given careful thought to his appearance, has prepared a biography that highlights his accomplishments as an expert and has established eye contact with his audience before he begins to speak. What type of credibility has he established?

initial credibility

According to the great Roman orator ___, if you want your listeners to experience a certain emotion you need to first model it for them.

Cicero

A comparison between two things; also a special type of inductive reasoning that compares one thing, person, or process with another to predict how something will perform and respond is called

reasoning by analogy

A speaker who is charismatic is

perceived as a talented, charming, attractive speaker.

In a refutation organizational pattern you

anticipate your listeners' key objections to your proposal and then address them.

Aristotle used the term ____ to refer to a speaker's credibility.

ethos

Which of the following would be an example of tapping audience members' beliefs in shared myths?

A speaker who says we are gathered here today because we all believe in a brighter future.

Aristotle said that any persuasive speech has two parts: first you state your case, second you

prove your case

The motivated sequence approach makes use of the ____ approach.

cognitive dissonance

Senator Joseph McCarthy is an example of a speaker who tried to gain control over others by using unethical means and appealing to his listener's prejudices, called a

demagogue

Tammy knows that her audience is receptive to her ideas. It is probably best for her to begin by

establishing common ground.

Paolo knows that his audience does not believe that global warming is actually occurring. He decides to prove that the arguments against his position are false. What strategy is he using to organize his persuasive message?

refutation

To enhance your terminal credibility you should

be prepared for questions

Nathan uses a syllogism in his speech. This means he

organized his argument into three parts.

The Greek word "demagogos" means

popular leader.

Derived credibility is

the perception of a speaker's credibility that is formed during a speech.

Terri is giving a speech about the best and worst personal computers to buy. She argues that Dell computers are superior because she owned a Dell for five years and never had any problems with it, her brother owns a Dell and really likes his, and three of her classmates have Dell laptops that they say have been excellent purchases. What type of reasoning is Terri using to support her argument?

inductive reasoning

The impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech is called

initial credibility

You should begin your speech by noting areas of agreement before you discuss areas of disagreement when dealing with a(n)

unreceptive audience

What did Aristotle call an appeal to emotion?

pathos

Since the 70-mile-per-hour speed limit was reinstated, traffic deaths have increased. The increased highway speed has caused an increase in highway deaths. This is an example of

casual reasoning

In a cause-and-effect organizational pattern you

first present the cause of the problem; then note how the problem affects the listeners. Or, identify a known effect; then document what causes the effect.

Using a simile or metaphor to create an emotional image is

a good way to enhance your credibility as a speaker and develop a strong emotional image.

I. Attention: Imagine a pile of $1000 bills 67 miles high. That's our national debt.II. Need: The increasing national debt will cause hardships for our children and grandchildren.III. Satisfaction: We need higher taxes to reduce our debt.IV. Visualization: Imagine our country in the year 2050; it could have low inflation and full employment or be stuck with a debt ten times our debt today.V. Action: If you want to lower the debt by increasing tax revenue, sign my petition that I will send to our senators.This is an example of a

motivated sequence organization.

The greatest challenge for a speaker with a neutral audience is to

get them interested in your message.

ethos

term aristotle used to refer to a speakers credibility

logos

literally, "the word"; the term Aristotle used to refer to logic-the formal system of using rules to reach a conclusion

pathos

the term used by Aristotle to refer to appeals to human emotion

cognitive dissonance

the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns

social judgement theory

theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuasive message as in the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of noncommitment

proposition of fact

a proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen

proposition of value

proposition that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something

proposition of policy

that advocates a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior

dynamism

an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic

charisma

characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker

initial credibility

the impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speakers starts a speech

derived credibility

the perception of a speaker's credibility that is formed during a speech

terminal credibility

the final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after a speech concludes

inductive reasoning

reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general probable conclusion

deductive reasoning

reasoning that moves from a general statement of principle to a specific, certain conclusion

major premise

general statement that is the first element of syllogism

minor premise

specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise, the second element of syloggism

casual reasoning

reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads you to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others

reluctant testimony

statement by someone who has reversed his or her position on a given issue

fallacy

false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate

casual fallacy

faulty cause and effect connection between two things or events

bandwagon fallacy

reasoning that suggest that because everyone else believes something or is doing something then it must be valid or correct

either/or fallacy

the oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibility

hasty generalization

conclusion reached wo adequate evidence

ad hominem

an attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea, rather than on the idea itself

red herring

irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion

appeal to misplaced authority

use of testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise

non sequitor

latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that doesn't logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion

demagogue

a speaker who gains control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and appeals to listeners' prejudices.

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