Sci - Chap 4 Vocab

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diffusion

the movement of particles from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration

osmosis

the diffusion of water across a cell membrane

passive transport

the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas where the concentration of particles is HIGH to areas where the concentration is LOW

active transport

the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion; requires cells to use energy

endocytosis

the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell

exocytosis

the process used to remove large particles from a cell; a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell membrane

photosynthesis

the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar

cellular respiration

the process of producing ATP from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide as a waste product

fermentation

the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen

cell cycle

the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotes it consists of chromosome duplication, mitosis, and cytokinesis

chromosome

coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division

binary fission

the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two; used by bacteria

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes with matching information

chromatids

identical copies of a chromosome

centromere

the region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated

mitosis

nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes

cytokinesis

the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis

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