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3a. The Brain, Consciousness, and Sleep 3b. Hypnosis 3c. Drugs, Consciousness, and Near-Death Experiences

These are uncontrollable sleep attacks.

narcolepsy.

The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with:

unconscious information processing.

The term circadian rhythm refers to _____.

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour schedule

his sleep disorder is typified by pausing or shallowness of breathing.

sleep apnea

1 in 10 adults complain of this sleep disorder, which is characterized by nightly problems falling or staying asleep.

insomnia

The simultaneous processing of information on many _____ tracks is most closely associated with unconscious information processing.

parallel

It is at the end of this stage that children may wet the bed or begin walking in their sleep.

NREM-3 sleep

_____ is our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

consciousness

Jasper stays up very late most Saturday nights. He finds Monday mornings very difficult because he often sleeps until noon on Sunday and has trouble going to sleep at a reasonable time on Sunday night. To prevent his Monday morning problem, Jasper should go to sleep each day at a(n) _____ time.

regular

Chronic sleep deprivation is most likely to contribute to:

suppression of the immune system.

Shortly after going to bed, some people claim to have been abducted by space aliens. These people commonly recall being floated off their beds. It is most likely that they have incorporated _____ into their memories.

hypnagogic sensations

You are trying to convince a group of parents that their elementary-school-aged children need more sleep. Which of the following pieces of information would you use to convince them?

Sleep aids in the restoration and repair of brain tissue.Our memories of the day, including things learned in school, are restored while we sleep.The pituitary gland releases growth hormones while we are sleeping.

Change blindness, inattentional blindness, and cocktail party effect all illustrate _____.

selective attention

You go to bed at your regular time, and as you begin to drift slowly off to sleep, you jump up suddenly as you feel you are falling down the stairs. This is best explained by a _____ sensation.

hypnagogic

Arnold goes to his psychotherapist and describes his recent dreams where he flies like an eagle through the sky. His therapist listens and then offers the interpretation that this dream signifies Arnold's unconscious desires to be free of his family obligations. Arnold's therapist is displaying an interest in:

the latent content of Arnold's dream.

Every night, after a late dinner, Sasha has a strong cup of coffee before working out at the gym. On her way home, she likes to stop for a double-chocolate frozen yogurt. Finally, she watches the late news and drinks two glasses of red wine, because she has heard that red wine is good for you. Based on this routine, sleep experts might predict that Sasha would be likely to complain of _____.

insomnia

Which of the following states of consciousness occur spontaneously?

Daydreaming

After returning from her vacation in New Zealand, your roommate apologizes for forgetting the time difference and calling while you were asleep. She indicated that she could not understand what you attempted to say to her. You're very puzzled by her comment because you have no recollection of the phone conversation. The phone conversation most likely occurred while you were experiencing NREM- _____ sleep.

3

Hypnosis, daydreaming, and meditation are example of:

altered states of consciousness.

When Maria goes into the bedroom to check on the child she is babysitting, she observes that his eyes are rapidly moving back and forth rapidly under his eyelids. The baby is also lying very still. It is likely that he is _____.

dreaming

Those who complain of insomnia typically _____ how long it actually takes them to fall asleep and underestimate how long they actually slept.

overestimate

stage of deep sleep.

NREM-3 sleep.

Hypnagogic sensations occur in

NREM-1 sleep.

Sleep spindles occur in:

NREM-2 sleep.

The sleep disorder _____ is likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking.

night terrors

The _____ illusion illustrates how we have both a visual perception track and a visual action track.

hollow face

The sleep disorder _____ is most strongly associated with obesity.

sleep apnea

Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on the _____.

circadian rhythm

Selective attention is illustrated by which of the following?

change blindness
inattentional blindness
cocktail party effect

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere while this question is asking about a change.

inattentional bias.

During commencement, a parent sat waiting for his child's name to be called. He failed to realize that the person initially reading off the graduate names left and that a new person was now reading. This scenario illustrates:

change deafness.

The distinction between manifest content and latent content is central to _____ theory of dreams

Freud's wish-fulfillment

Without fail, when you are talking to your best friend about something important, she continues to check her smart phone and watch for people she knows. Her behavior is evidence of _____.

parallel processing

vid dreams occur during this recurring sleep stage, also known as paradoxical sleep.

REM

_____ is an altered state of consciousness or psychological state of altered attention in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions.

Hypnosis

American, British, and Australian courts generally ban testimony from witnesses who have been hypnotized, because the procedure often results in:

pseudomemories.

Social-influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of _____.

hypnosis

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others is called:

dissociation.

Evidence from research on hypnotic susceptibility has demonstrated that on average ______ percent of people have high levels of hypnotic susceptibility.

20

Researcher Barber believes in the _____ explanation of hypnosis while researcher Hilgard believes in the divided consciousness explanation of hypnosis.

social influence

can inadvertently be created when hypnosis is used to aid recall.

Pseudomemories:

According to the social influence theory of hypnosis, hypnotized subjects are:

responding to the social demands of the situation.

While at a comedy club, you see a hypnotized person follow a hypnotic suggestion to stand on one leg (like a flamingo) for five minutes. If that person was not hypnotized, she _____ be able to perform this same feat.

WOULD

Hilgard's dissociation theory of hypnosis:

contends that hypnosis is a special state of consciousness.

Research on hypnosis has found no evidence for claims related to:

age regression.

In an experiment, hypnotized subjects are told to scratch their ear every time they hear the word "psychology." The results indicate that they do this only if they think the experiment is still under way. These findings most clearly support the theory that hypnosis involves _____.

role playing

Social-influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of:

hypnosis.

_____ is considered by some people to be no more than a social interaction, during which one person suggests to another person that various feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will occur spontaneousl

Hypnotism

If a successfully hypnotized person places her arm in a bucket of ice, she will likely:

view the water as cold but not painful.

is considered by some people to be no more than a social interaction, during which one person suggests to another person that various feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will occur spontaneously.

Hypnotism

Researcher Barber believes in the _____ explanation of hypnosis while researcher Hilgard believes in the _____ explanation of hypnosis.

social-influence; divided consciousness

Which of the following statements about the effectiveness of hypnosis is FALSE?

Research does not support the claim that hypnosis can reduce the experience of pain.

While at a comedy club, you see a hypnotized person follow a hypnotic suggestion to stand on one leg (like a flamingo) for five minutes. What would you expect of that person when NOT hypnotized?

Even without hypnosis, she would be able to perform this same feat.

A person who responds successfully to a hypnotic suggestion that he NOT react to the smell of ammonia held under his nose is likely to be the type of person who is frequently engaged in _____ activities.

imaginative

People who are hypnotized are able to:

There is no evidence that hypnotized people can do any of these things.

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others is called:

dissociation

A researcher is interested in studying hypnosis, but she only wants to include people with high hypnotic ability. She should choose study participants who:

have rich fantasy lives.

Dissociation has been used as an explanation for:

hypnotic pain relief.

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