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Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called:
A. antibiotics
B. narrow-spectrum drugs
C. semisynthetic drugs
D. synthetic drugs
E. broad-spectrum drugs

A. antibiotics

Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed:
A. antibiotics
B. narrow-spectrum drugs
C. semisynthetic drugs
D. synthetic drugs
E. broad-spectrum drugs

E. broad-spectrum drugs

Antibiotics are derived from all the following except:
A. Penicillium
B. Bacillus
C. Staphylococcus
D. Streptomyces
E. Cephalosporium

C. Staphylococcus

Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include:
A. low toxicity for human tissues
B. high toxicity against microbial cells
C. do not cause serious side effects in humans
D. stable and soluble in body tissues and fluids
E. all of the choices are correct

E. all of the choices are correct

Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause:
A. nephrotoxicity
B. superinfections
C. allergic reactions
D. drug toxicity
E. all of the choices are correct

B. superinfections

Penicillins and cephalosporins:
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
D. damage cell membranes
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules

E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules

Sulfonamides:
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
D. damage cell membranes
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules

B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis

Aminoglycosides:
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
D. damage cell membranes
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules

C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis

A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is:
A. synercid
B. penicillinase
C. aztreonam
D. clavulanic acid
E. imipenem

D. clavulanic acid

Gram negative rods are often treated with:
A. penicillin G
B. vancomycin
C. aminoglycosides
D. synercid
E. isoniazid

C. aminoglycosides

This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis:
A. penicillin G
B. vancomycin
C. aminoglycosides
D. synercid
E. isoniazid

E. isoniazid

Antimicrobics that are macrolides:
A. disrupt cell membrane function
B. include tetracyclines
C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin
D. are very narrow-spectrum drugs
E. are hepatotoxic

C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin

The drug that can cause aplastic anemia, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is:
A. chloramphenicol
B. clindamycin
C. ciprofloxacin
D. bacitracin
E. gentamicin

A. chloramphenicol

The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic-associated colitis is:
A. chloramphenicol
B. clindamycin
C. ciprofloxacin
D. bacitracin
E. gentamicin

B. clindamycin

The antifungal drug that can be used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is:
A. nystatin
B. griseofulvin
C. amphotericin B
D. sulfa drugs
E. metronidazole

C. amphotericin B

The drug used for several protozoan infections is:
A. nystatin
B. griseofulvin
C. amphotericin B
D. sulfa drugs
E. metronidazole

E. metronidazole

Mebendazole, niclosamide, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat _____ infections.
A. bacterial
B. fungal
C. protozoan
D. helminthic
E. virus

D. helminthic

Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat _____ infections.
A. bacterial
B. fungal
C. protozoan
D. helminthic
E. virus

B. fungal

Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals?
A. block penetration
B. block transcription and translation
C. inhibit DNA synthesis
D. block maturation
E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane

E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane

The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include:
A. bacterial chromosomal mutations
B. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure
C. prevention of drug entry into the cell
D. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets
E. all of the choices are correct

E. all of the choices are correct

When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a superinfection.
True False

False

The antibiotic of the penicillin family is penicillin G.
True False

True

The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe.
True False

True

Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys.
True False

False

The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface.
True False

True

Kirby-Bauer method

3.) Antimicrobial susceptibility

Lantibiotics

1.) Nisin

Acyclovir

2.) Antiviral

Mefloquin

6.) Chloroquin-resistant malaria

Greseofulvin

7.) Athelet's foot

Ergosterol

8.) Polyene antifungal

Tetracycline

9.) Streptomyces

Clavulanic acid

5.) Inhibits beta-lactamase

Sulfonamide

10.) Synthetic antimicrobial

Prophylaxis

14.) Prevent infection

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