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Jim Bridger co-op's seventh history exam terms and definitions! Study well, classmates. If i need any corrections, tell me! I'll be sure to correct it. -McGirl

Prime Minister Chamberlain

He brokered the Munich Agreement, promising the British people "peace for our time." Neither he nor his French ally believed that Czechslovakia was worth a war. Following Hitler's invasion of Poland, he invited his adversary Churchill to join the Cabinet in his old office of First Lord of the Admiralty.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

When the Americans landed in North Africa he became the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces there. He later led the D-Day invasion of Europe.

Anne Frank

A fugitive from the Nazis, this thirteen-year-old girl hid with her family in a secret room above an Amsterdam warehouse. Her diary tells of the two years her family spent in hiding.

Joseph Goebbels

Hitler gave him the job of Propaganda Minister. As Germany's Propaganda Minister he destroyed freedom of the press, staged book burnings, created slogans, destroyed or removed "degenerate" art, and spread negative stereotypes

Reinhard Heydrich

He ran the Gestapo in Nazi Germany. Nicknamed "the Blond Beast," his mission was to crush opposition to Hitler's dictatorship. In May 1942 the Czech Resistance bombed his car and killed him.

Heinrich Himmler

He was head of Hitler's SS. When he was appointed in 1929 Hitler's SS was a bodyguard of two hundred eighty men. Within a decade he turned the SS into a police force numbering a quarter of a million.

President von Hindenburg

Once Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany, only this man and the army stood between Hitler and absolute power. Hitler won the confidence of the army by having his own storm troopers murdered in the Night of the Long Knives, and this man stepped aside, allowing Hitler to become President and Chancellor of Germany.

Adolf Hitler

Born in 1889 in Austria he believed the Germans were a superior race and sought to conquer foreign peoples for enslavement, and foreign territory for exploitation. As ruler of Germany he brought about the Second World War, enslaved millions of people, and had millions of people locked up, starved, and murdered.

General Bernard Montgomery

The British General who led a successful counter-campaign against Germany's Rommel in North Africa.

General Rommel

His troops pushed the British back hundreds of miles in North Africa. When his troops reached El Alamein, two hundred fifty miles inside of Egypt, Churchill put General Montgomery in command of the British, and Montgomery succeeded in nearly destroying the German army in Africa.

Joseph Stalin

The leader of the Soviet Union, he signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact in 1939, promising to join Germany in the event of a war on Poland.

Allies

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Great Britain and France formed an alliance to fight Germany in the event of an attack on Poland. France's surrender to the Germans in June 1940 left the British to fight the Germans alone. When Hitler invaded Russia in June 1941, the USSR allied with Britain. On December 8, 1941 the US joined the alliance with Britain and the USSR.

Axis Powers

Germany's Third Reich, Italy, and Japan formed this alliance. From August 1939 to June 1941 the USSR was in an alliance with Germany.

Hitler Youth

Hitler formed these after-school clubs for boys. These youth clubs were really military training for teen-age boys who learned weapons training and took part in realistic battle excercises.

Jews

This group of people was persecuted by Hitler and the Nazis. The Nazis murdered six million men, women, and children in a crime unequalled in history.

Labour Party

When this socialist British political party joined forces with the Liberal Party, Churchill decided to leave the Liberal Party and become a Conservative again.

Liberal Party

Churchill served as a member of Parliament for this Party for twenty years. This Party stood for Free Trade (or was against tariffs) and supported some government regulation of business.

Luftwaffe

The German air force that, among other attacks, inflicted heavy damage on London and other English cities defended by only a tiny British air force in the Battle of Britain.

Nazis

Adolf Hitler eventually became leader of this political group in Germany. Their name stood for the National Socialist German Workers' Party.

Pathfinders

These advanced Paratroopers used flashlights and beacons to mark drop zones for the Allied parachutists on D-Day.

Red Army

The army of the Soviet Union.

Security Service (SS)

In 1929 when Himmler took over this group, it was a small body-guard of two hundred fifty men. In a decade Himmler turned it into a police force numbering a quarter of a million. Members of this police force would carry out any order without question.

Storm Troopers

Hitler took army veterans, many from the disbanded Free Corps, and turned them into his private army.

White Rose

This small group in the German Resistance dedicated itself to rallying students against Hitler. Members of the group distributed leaflets describing Nazi crimes.

Auschwitz

The largest of Hitler's extermination camps, located in Poland.

Austria

Hitler was born and raised in this country but left for Germany, which he believed to be the true home of the Aryan race. It was annexed to Germany in the Anschluss of 1938.

Czechoslovakia

In 1938 Hitler demanded that this country surrender the Sudetenland, a part of the country believed inhabited by 3.5 million German-speaking citizens, or face war with Germany. In the Munich Agreement the British and French offered Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for a promise of peace, but in 1939 the German army invaded the entire country.

Elbe River

Eisenhower held Allied troops at this location, allowing the Soviets to reach Berlin first at the close of the war in Europe.

Munich

Prompted by his racist beliefs, Hitler moved from Austria to this city in Germany. After serving in the German army in WWII, Hitler returned to this city and became a leader of the Nazi party.

Pearl Harbor

On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked this US naval base in the Pacific, destroying nineteen warships and 265 planes, "a day that would live in infamy." The next day America declared war on Japan.

Poland

Hitler planned to use territorial claims against this country as an excuse for conquest. His real aim was the annihilation of this nation. To accomplish the conquest of this country, Hitler joined with the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. On September 1, 1939 Germany invaded this country from the West, triggering the Second World War. On September 17, 1939 the Soviets invaded from the East.

Rhineland

In 1936 Hitler sent his troops into this demilitarized area bordering an industrialized area of France. HItler's action was in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, but the French and the British did not oppose him because they recalled the horrors of the First World War.

Sudetenland

In 1938 Hitler demanded that this area of Czechoslovakia inhabited by 3.5 million German-speaking citizens be turned over to Germany.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The United States dropped atomic bombs on these cities on August 6th and August 9th, 1945, bringing about Japan's surrender and the end of the Second World War.

Iwo Jima and Okinawa

The last two strategically important islands held by the Japanese in the War in the Pacific. The Japanese lost more than 130,000 men defending the islands they considered as the gateway to their homeland, and the Americans lost more than 19,000 soldiers.

Maginot Line

Constructed by the French to prevent invasion by the Germans as happened in WWI, these fortifications were the key to French military strategy in WWII.

Bushido

This code, developed by Japan's warrior class, the samurai, glorified war. According to the code, death in battle was the greatest honor, surrender the greatest disgrace. Rather than surrender, the warrior was expected to commit suicide.

Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere

Japan's war minister Tojo announced that Japan would liberate members of the region of Southest Asia from "Western bondage." Japan conquered Southeast Asia and administered its lands as colonies.

Bataan Death March

The forced march of Americans and Filipinos following their April 1942 surrender to the Japanese in the Philippines. More than 22,000 Americans died on the march. The Japanese marched 76,000 prisoners for six days to holding camps in the north.

Omaha Beach, Normandy

The American landing here on D-Day was a nightmare. American troops were pinned on the beach under heavy fire. Officers urged the men to renew their attack. By the day's end the Germans had fled their stronghold and more Americans were able to land.

Stalingrad

When Hitler attacked Russia, Stalin ordered this city to be held at all costs. Every street, apartment, and room was defended by the Red Army and by Soviet citizens. Using the city as bait, Soviet armies encircled the German army. The city lay in ruins, but the Soviets had won their first decisive victory over the Germans in WWII.

Anschluss

This word means "union" in German. In 1938 Hitler met with the Austrian Chancellor and demanded that Austria stop opposing "union" with Germany. Hitler threatened to attack, and the Austrian Chancellor turned his country over to the Austrian Nazis. The next day the Germans invaded.

Anti-Semitism

This type of racism was a believe that the Jews were an inferior "race" destined to be ruled by the superior Aryan race.

Aryan Race

Hitler believed that the Germans were a superior race destined to rule the world. Hitler also believed the Germans should rule the Jews, Slavs, Russians, and Gypsies.

Atlantic Charter

Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly in 1941 and drafted this statement of principal. The document they wrote proclaimed self-determination for nation states and the Four Freedoms: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion. Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear.

Bataan Death March

The forced march of Americans and Filipinos following their April 1942 surrender to the Japanese in the Philippines. More than 22,000 Americans died on the march. The Japanese marched 76,000 prisoners for 6 days to holding camps in the north.

Battle of Alamein

Britain's first victory in North Africa. General Montgomery and his troops forced Rommel to make a thousand-mile retreat.

Battle of Midway

America's first victory against Japan and the turning point of the war in the Pacific. This battle ended Japan's threat to the West Coast of the United States.

Battle of the Bulge

In November 1944 Hitler sent 250,000 men and a thousand tanks through the Ardennes Forest, driving a thirty-mile bulge in the Allied line. Hitler had the advantage of surprise, but the Americans won the battle after Patton's army saved Bastogne.

Battle of Britain

This battle began with France's surrender to Germany in the Second World War. Britain now stood alone against the Nazis, pitting her tiny air force against the German Luftwaffe while the British people built bomb shelters. The "Blitz" began in September 1940 as the Germans bombed London from the air for 57 nights in a row. The British suffered setbacks around the globe as the Japanese threatened Australia, Germans drove the British from Greece, pro-Nazis seized Iraq, Nazis dominated in Libya and Egypt, and Hitler invaded Russia.

Blitzkrieg or Lightning War

In his assault on Poland, Hitler used a surprise attack and swarms of tanks to make war. Surprise, force, and speed propelled Hitler's war machine.

Concentration Camps

Hitler's work camps were prisons guarded by barbed wire. The Gestapo sent thousands of Jews and others to the work camps. The SS guards who ran the camps were cruel and often punished prisoners harshly.

Dunkirk

The site of the successful evacuation of Allied troops from the northern coast of France in the Second World War. A flotilla of Navy ships, merchant ships, fishing boats, yachts, and sailboats rescued 224,318 British and 111,172 French soldiers, ferrying them across the channel to England. This successful rescue stiffened the resolve of the British to fight Hitler.

Gestapo

The name of Hitler's secret police, run by Reinhard Heydrich. The mission of Hitler's secret police was to crush opposition to Hitler. The police interrogated suspects under torture, killed their enemies, and sent thousands of people to concentration camps each year.

Holocaust

Hitler committed a crime unequalled in history. He planned to murder every Jew in Europe. To the Jewish people this crime was a firestorm that almost burnt up their whole people. In Hitler's extermination camps six million Jews and hundreds of thousands of Poles, Russians, Gypsies, and others were murdered.

Lend-Lease Act

In 1941 Congress passed this Act allowing the President to avoid war materials to nations resisting aggression.

"Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle"

Hitler tried unsuccessfully to take over the Weimar government and was tried for treason and sent to prison. While in prison he wrote this book about his racist beliefs, his methods of acquiring power, and his plan to take over Germany and the world.

Munich Agreement

In 1938 Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia surrender the Sudetenland or face war with Germany. The British and the French agreed to let Hitler have the Sudetenland in exchange for a promise of peace.

Nazi-Soviet Pact

To accomplish the conquest of Poland, Hitler joined with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Stalin signed this pact in 1939, agreeing to join Germany in the event of a war on Poland.

Putsch

This German word means "takeover." In 1923 Hitler attempted a takeover of the Weimar government. Hitler led his storm troopers in a march on Munich. The effort failed and Hitler was tried and sent to prison.

Operation Barbarossa

On June 22, 1941 Hitler launched his plan to invade the Soviet Union. Hitler planned the conquest of Russia to force Britain to surrender, and to feed the German people.

Operation Torch

General Eisenhower led and American and British troops that landed in Morocco and Algeria in the largest invasion to date using coordinated sea and land troops.

Racism

The unscientific classification of people according to their ethnicity, religion, or nationality, leading to the belief in a superior race of people meant to rule inferior races.

Reichstag

The freely elected parliament of Germany's Weimar Republic was housed in this building. In February 1933 Hitler arranged to have the building burned to the ground and blamed the Communists.

Resistance Movement

These secret groups opposing Hitler sprang up in every country occupied by Germany. Thier aim was to harm the Germans. Aided by the British and the Americans, members of these secret groups were trained in spying, radio communication, decoding, sabotage, forgery, and assassination.

Swastika

Hitler's Nazi Party emblem. The embled was a bold, eye-catching design that stood for anti-Semitism and racism.

Third Reich

Germany's third empire was born when Hitler assumed absolute power in August, 1934. The first two empires were the medieval Holy Roman Empire, that was mostly German and lasted until the Napoleonic Wars, and the German empire under the Kaiser (1971-1918). Hitler believed his empire would last for a thousand years.

Totalitarianism

A form of government in which a dictator controls every aspect of his subjects' lives. Hitler controlled people's lives through propaganda, censorship, and terror.

U-Boats

These German boats attacked British shipping on the Atlantic, almost causing the English to lose the First World War.

Weimar Republic

A new government was elected in the city of this name following Germany's defeat in World War I. Many Germans blamed the new government for betraying German interests in signing the Treaty of Versailles -- one of these Germans was Adolf Hitler.

Yalta Conference

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at this conference in early 1945 to agree on post-war political boundaries and set up a blueprint for the United Nations.

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