The repetition of the initial phoneme of each word in connected text.
Understanding what one is reading, the ultimate goal of all reading activity.
The concept that letters and letter combinations represent individual phonemes in written words
Forming connections between the text and the information and experiences of the reader.
A scaffold is a supporting framework. Scaffolded learning is a teaching strategy that helps support in their learning when they may have difficulties. A goal of scaffolded learning is to have students use a particular strategy independently.
A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. Includes the following competencies: Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
A decoding strategy for breaking words into manageable parts (e.g.,/good/morn/ing). Chunking also refers to the process of dividing a sentence into smaller phrases where pauses might occur naturally.
The ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound symbol correspondences; also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
Instruction that seeks to maximize each student's growth by recognizing that students have different ways of learning, different interests, and different ways of responding to instruction.
Direct Instruction (DI)
The teacher defines and teaches a concept, guides students through its application, and arranges for extended guided practice until mastery is achieved.
Short-term grouping of students for various purposes, such as skill development. Teachers may group by ability, interest, topic, or random assignment
Unique spelling of a word created by a child who has not yet learned the correct spelliing.
A technique used most frequently with expository text to promote comprehension. It can be used as a type of graphic organizer in the form of a chart, and it consists of a 3-step process: K stands for What I Know; W stands for What I Want to Know; and L stands for What I Learned
An Awareness of one's own thinking processes; the process of regulating one's own learning by reviewing one's knowledge and methods of problem solving.
The Study of education and education practice. Also, a philosophy about the best way to teach.
The ability to recognize that words and syllables are composed of bits of sound (phonemes), which is important in learning to read.
The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondences.
Refers to prior knowledge, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to the text.
A teaching approach that identifies the specific steps (sequence) needed to teach a given lesson. Includes clear objectives describing the content to be learned, detailed strategies to teach that content, and diagnostic assessments to determine whether students have mastered the content.
Onset and Rime
Onset is the part of a syllable that comes before the vowel of a syllable. The Rime is the part of the syllable that consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it.
Accuracy (part of fluency)
Reading words in text with no errors.
A unit of meaning that can stand alone as a whole word.
The task of combining sounds rapidly, to accurately represent the word.
Two or more consecutive consonants which retain their individual sounds.
Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme, or sound.
A vowel produced by the tongue shifting position during articulation; a vowel that feels as if it as two parts, especially the vowels spelled ow, oy, ou, and oi.
The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to convetional forms of reading and writing.
The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning.
Five Components of Reading
Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
A letter of letter combination that spells a phoneme; can be one, two, three, or four letters in English.