Carbohydrates

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carbonyl

...

carbohydrate

contains polalcohols, named because while burning carbohydrate the formula is Cn(H₂O)n.

The term "carbohydrate" comes from the observation that their apparent molecular formula was Cn(H2O)n. For example, in the case of glucose, the molecular formula of C6H12O6 can be understood as C6(H2O)6.

Carbohydrates can be classified according to size (i.e., the number of sugar units per molecule). The term "saccharide" (derived from Latin for sugar) is the chemical name for a sugar unit. A monosaccharide is composed of one simple sugar unit. A disaccharide is composed of two simple sugar units. Oligosaccharides contain from 2 up to 10 sugar units. A polysaccharide is composed of over 10 sugar units.

glyceraldehyde

most basic carbohydrate, the simplest (smallest) carbohydrate has only 3 carbons & only 1 chiral center

C₃H₆O₃,
an aldotriose

Dihydroxyacetone

DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple carbohydrate (a triose) with formula C3H6O3.

aldotose

carbonyl group at the end of carbon chain. aldehyde group

keytose

carbonyl group at any other position other than end

epimer of glucose

Know fisher projection
right left right right right
then adjust according to glucose fisher

glucose

aldohexthat most is in cyclic form, ∆G -12 and has another chiral carbon. and new name,α is same, β opposite Oh sides

fructose

fisher, same as glucose but double bond moves down one

cyclization

in aq solutions all monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons form rings carbonyl forms bond with , double bond moves off and adds H

hemiacetals and hemiketals

formation of sugar rings resulting from alcohols or keystones , Structures that develop when an HO-R reacts with a carbonyl to create an ether linkage and another center of asymmetry
In sugars: intramolecular hemiacetals/hemiketals create rings and produce α & β anomer. label each carbon and

pyranoses

α-D-Glucopyranose
β-D-Glucopyranose
With aldoses, the attack by alcohol on the aldehyde forms a hemiacetal which in turn cyclizes the sugar resulting with five of the six carbons within the six-membered ring. This type of five-carbon, one-oxygen ring is similar to a pyran, therefore, the cyclic form of aldohexoses are called _______.

furanoses

five-membered rings made by cyclizing straight chains; so named because they resemble furan

reducing sugars

capable of reducing cupric ions, monosaccharides witha carbonyl group that oxidizes to give a carboxylic acid; undergo rxn with Benedicts reagent (Cu2+) to give the corresponding carboxylix acid; includes the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, and mannose, Have Free aldehyde or keytone group (carbonyl); includes: ALL monosaccharides; disaccharides where 1 aldehyde or keytone group is free)

enediols

Intermediate of isomerization; involved in some reactions during carbohydrate metabolism

colorimetric glucose Analysis

photometer measures color produced when H₂O₂ from glucose oxidation reac ts with a dye and reads out blood glucose concentration

O-Glycosidic bond

Disaccharides such as maltose,lactose,sucrose consist of two monosaccharide are joined together on sides by glycosidic bond . formed when a hydroxyl group group of one sugar reacts with the anomeric carbon of the other,

anomeric carbon

The hemiacetal carbon of the cyclic form of a monosaccharide, can be identified as the only carbon attached to two oxygens because its alcohol group may point upwards or downwards on the ring structure resulting in either the α or β anomer.

glycoside

A compound that yields a sugar and one or more other products when its parts are separated

non reducing disaccharides

...

Trehalose

α -Glucose (1:1) α-Glucose
Non-reducing, A dissacharide sugar that might help prevent agianst dehydration and make anhydrobiosis possible. Some insects also use it as an antifreeze protectant. resurrection plant

homopolysaccharides

degree of branching containing a single monomeric species
starch and glycogen, cellulose, Chitin,

heteropolysaccharides

contain species obtain two or more different kinds
peptidoglycan
agar
Heparin

starch

are of amylose and amylopectin
Amylose is short branched and amylopectin is highly branched
branched aprox 25 sugars
1,4 α-D-glucose linked amylose
1,6 amylopectin linked

glycogen

amylopectin, identically to starch with a minor change in branch point,
branches every 8 to 12 branch points
molecular weight of millions
all α-D glucose

cellulosic

chains of β-D-Glucose 1,4 linked and for sheets
most animals can't use as fuel due to lacking enzyme to hydrolysis linkage

horses have bacteria that cellulase

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