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where did Baroque move from

italy...france...england

origin of the word baroque

portugese for "barroco"- referring to a pearl of irregular shape

describe idea of baroque

excessive ornamentation in visual arts

rough bold sound in music; large, colorful, dramatic, lots of contrast

examples of extravagance

-St. Peter's Basilica - by Gian Lorenzo
-Palace of Versailles - by Louis XVI
-Bernini's canopy - st. florian austrian monestery

doctrine of affections

-aesthetic theory
-different musical moods could and should be used to convey emotions of the audience

2 elements remain in baroque

1) expressive melody
2) strong supporting bass

voices are no longer

equal

switch from renaissance vocal ensemble to

accompanied solo song

monody

-expressive solo singing to single (simple) accompaniment

-single singer steps forward and accompanied by a few supporting instruments
-where vocal virtuosity came from
-aria

_________ carries melody, __________ provides strong harmonic support

soprano, bass

in the beginning, the texture of baroque music was

homophonic

basso continuo

bass-driven chordal support - played by 1+ instruments

theorbo

instrument that has more low strings than the lute
-played the basso continuo

________ played the top line

harpsichord

figured bass

numerical shorthand placed below shorthand
-how the harpsichordist knew what chords to play

3 sections of baroque

1) early baroque (1600-1660)
2) middle baroque (1660-1710)
3) late baroque (1710-1750)

2 diff melodic lines

1) dramatic, virtuosic style
2) mechanical style with repetitions, instrumental music

vocal melody in baroque

quick shifts from long notes to very short notes
-long phrases, excited sound, single syllable in long melisma

harmony

-based on basso continuo
-chord progressions came around
-shortest and most frequent: V-I (dominant-tonic) candence
-major and minor scales "modes"

rhythm

-uniformity (not flexibility)
-strong recurring beat

texture of baroque music in later times

polyphony

dynamics

-began to dictate dynamics by writing in "piano"(soft) and "forte"(loud)
-preferred dramatic contrast in dynamics rather than gradual crescendo/decrescendo

terraced dynamics

shifting the volume of sound suddenly from one to another

opera

Italian word for "work" : includes music, drama, scenery, costumes, dance

libretto

"little book" - text of an opera
-poet worked with the composer

3 laws of opera house

1) all parts of the drama are sung
2) major roles go to best singers
3) star singers demand and receive huge appearance fees => the cost of opera is enormous

origins of opera

-late 16th century Italy (Florence, Mantua, Italy)
-for progressive musicians and intellectuals
-shows the power of ancient Greek music
-Vincenzo Galilei and Galileo Galilei

Claudio Monteverdi

-musical genious
-good at madrigal, mass, motet, opera

where was Monteverdi born

Cremona

where did Monteverdi move

Mantua

why did he move there

to serve the Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga as a singer and performer on string instruments...appointed director of music

wrote 2 operas for the court

1) Orfeo
2) Arianna

the duke didnt pay what he promised so...

Monteverdi left and took a job (maestro dicappella) at St. Mark's in Venice

also wrote

The Return of Ulysses, The Coronation of Poppea

where did he die

Venice

first important opera in the history of western music

orfeo

go over story of orfeo

do it!!!!

theme of orfeo

the divine power of music

the drama is advanced through

monody

simplest type of monody

recitative

recitative comes from italian word

"recitativo" - something recited

describe recitative

-musically heightened speech that communicates the plot to the audience
-attempts to mirror the natural rhythms of everyday speech - often made of rapidly repeating notes followed by one or two longs notes at the end of phrases

performed with or without meter or beat

without

is recitative accompanied by anything

only basso continuo

simple recitative

sparsely accompanied recitative

what kind of music did monteverdi write besides opera

aria

aria is italian for

"song" or "ayre"

describe aria

-more passionate, more expansive, more tuneful than a recitative
-conveys what the character feels about the events happening
-brings the action to a halt to focus a spotlight on the emotional state of a singer
-works through text at a leisurely pace
-words repeated to heighten their dramatic effect
-important vowels extended by melismas
-short rhyming poem of one or more stanzas

does aria have meter and regular rhythms

yes

describe orfeo's aria: "possente spirto"

3 three line stanzas, each with rhyme scheme ABA

music for each stanza begins and ends in the same key (G minor)

are operatic arias accompanied by anything

the basso continuo and all or part of the top of the orchestra

2 main stlyes of singing in baroque opera

recitative and aria

other style

arioso

describe arioso

-halfway between aria and recitative
-more declamatory than opera (speech-like)
-less rapid-fire delivery than recitative

instrumental works that serve as a curtain raiser

overtures, preludes, sinfonias

toccata

-one movement composition
-free in form
-originally for solo keyboard but later for instrumental ensemble as well
-instrumental showpiece
-sounded 3 times
-calls the audience to attention, to signal that the action is about to begin

how long is orfeo

-5 acts
-90 mins total

where was orfeo originally performed

mantua - without intermission

with the ending of orfeo, monteverdi established

happy ending

venice was like what city

las vegas - gambling, prostitution

monteverdi moved to

venice

why

to be director of music at Saint Mark's basilica

what did monteverdi create here

chamber cantata

chamber music was for who

soloists performed in the home or small auditorium

what was the main vocal genre of the music

cantata

what does cantata mean

"something sung"

chamber cantata description

accompanied solo singing

subject matter of chamber cantata

unrequited love; heroes/heroines of ancient history and mythology

how long does chamber cantata last

8-15 mins

how is it divided up

into contrasting sections that alternate between recitative and aria

lacks

costumes and scenery

chamber cantata in terms of opera

"mini opera"but for a single soloist

most important composer of chamber cantatas

barbara strozzi

how born and father

-born out of wedlock
-father: Giulio Strozzi- wrote librettos for monteverdi
-Venetian
-encouraged her to pursue music: got her composition lessons and organized gatherings at their house for her music to be heard

her teacher

Francesco Cavalli - student of Monteverdi

what she wrote

L'amante segreto (the secret lover) - about unrequited love
-she is too timid to reveal her passion to a guy and wants to die

when her dad died

she was poor with 4 kids and unmarried

what she published

6 collections of cantatas -each dedicate to a member of high nobility - paid her

Adriana Basile

-associate of Moteverdi at Mantua
-very successful virtuoso soprano
-first "diva"

Elena Piscopia

first woman tor eceive a university degree - Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Padua, Italy

Artemisia Gentileschi

-Florentine painter
-1st woman to be accepted to the Academy of Design
-became a court painter for king charles I of england

ostinato

melody, harmony, rhythm that repeats continually

basso ostinato

continual repetition in the bass

singing laments accompanied by

basso continuo descended in stepwise motion- symbolizes grief/lamentation

england had what kind of relationship with opera

love/hate

dido and aeneas

-1st important opera written in english

who wrote it

henry purcell

henry purcell

-"greatest of all english composers"

organist for

westminster abbey, king's chapel royal

what was dido and aeneas created for

-private girls boarding suburb in chelsea
-they had one major stage production annually
-included dance numbers

all 9 solo parts except for role of aeneas were written for ______ parts

female

story comes from

virgil's aeneid
-they studied this poem in latin class

chromaticism

vocal line descends a full octave - a device used by composers to signal pain and relief

ground bass

what english composers call "basso continuo" b/c repeating bass provided a solid foundation

ground bass purcell composed fir didos lament has 2 sections

1) chromatic stepwise descent over the interval of a 4th
2) 2 measure cadence returning to the tonic

form of didos lament

brief one stanza poem with an ABA rhyme scheme

each line of text and many indidvidual words are

repeated

17th century (late baroque): ______ music came to rival ________ music

instrumental vocal

growing popularity with which instrument

violin

idiomatic writing

"well suited" - exploits the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of particular voices and instruments

what applied to instruments too

doctrine of affections

origins of baroque orchestra

17th century Italy and France

meaning of orchestra

used to mean the area for musicians but later came to mean the musicians themselves

the insturments used

-variety of instruments but only 1 or 2 of each
-violin family emerged - dominated the orchestra
-violin, viola, cello, double bass

added what instrument family

woodwinds - used in pairs
-flute, oboe, bassoon

sometimes added in

trumpets, timpani and french horn

_________ was always there

basso continuo - either with harpsichord or 2 low string instruments

orchestra definition

ensemble of musicians, organized around a core of strings, with added woodwinds and brasses, playing under a leader

size of orchestra

small, no more than 20 performers, only 1 person assigned to a single written line

size of french king louis xiv's orchestra

much bigger - around 80

what did he call himself

"sun king", after apollo, the god of the sun and music

palace at versailles

largest court complex ever constructed

his quote about himself

"i am the state"

who controlled his court orchestra

jean baptiste lully

composition of the orchestra

24 string players
added flutes, oboes, bassoons

1st composer to require what

that strings and woodwinds always play together in an orchestra

how did he discipline

by force

how did he die

stabbed himself in the foot with stick - gangrene

responsible for french

overture

overture

instrumental piece that opens for a larger composition

french overture has 2 sections

1) slow duple meter; with stately dotted rhythms-royal procession
2)fast triple meter; imitation

where did french overture spread

england and germany

why is johann pahcelbel famous

"pachelbel's canon in D major"

describe pachelbel's canon in D major

-the 1st movement of a 2 movement instrumental suite
-the 2nd movement is a lively contrapuntal dance - a gigue
-the different voices are hard to distinguish
-what we hear is the bass line (fourths alternate with steps-intervallic pattern)
-gravitates strongly around subdominant, dominant and tonic chords

the allure of it

used by a lot of composers and modern day people

where did pachelbel work

germany

who did he teach

bach

used what specific technique

counterpoint

pachelbels canon is carried by what insturment

3 violins

sonata

type of instrumental chamber music (music played in the home with just one player per part)

"something sounded"

collection of movements, each with its own mood and tempo, all in same key

the movements: allemande, sarabande, gavotte, gigue (all dances)

who spread the sonata

arcangelo corelli

chamber sonata

baroque sonata with dance movements - 4 movements with alternating tempos: slow fast slow fast

2 types of sonatas

solo sonata

trio sonata

solo sonata

either for a solo keyboard instrument (ex. harpsichord) or for solo melody instrument (ex. violin)

trio sonata

3 musical lines (2 melody instruments and bass)

when harp joins bass to form basso continuo - actually 4 players

where was corelli born

near bologna, italy -important place for violin instruction and performance

moved where

to rome - to be a teacher, composer, performer of the violin

what is so significant about him

only musician buried in Rome's Pantheon - "hall of the gods"

how much did he write

only 5 sets of sonatas and once set of concertos

what was most important aspect of his music

harmony

most important link in the chain of chord progression

V-I (dominant tonic cadence)

wrote:

trio sonata in c major, opus 4, no. 1

1st piece in 4th published collection

describe it

chamber sonata written for 2 violins and basso continuo

opus:

"work" - used to enumerate and identify compositions

how many movements

4

the 2nd and 4th movements are

dance movements in binary (AB) form

AB

most comon form for baroque dances -no actual dancing, just captured the spirit of it

walking bass

bass that moves at a moderate, steady pace, mostly in equal not values, stepwise up or down the scale

2nd movement's form

corrente - fast, in triple meter

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