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Ethnic Group

A distinct group of people who share a common language, set of customs, history, culture, race, religion, or origin

Ethnocentrism

An orientation or set of beliefs that holds one's own culture, ethnic or racial group, or nation is superior to others

Racism

Stereotyping and generalizing about people, usually negatively, because of their race; commonly a basis of discrimination against members of racial minority groups

Prejudice

An opinion about an individual, group, or phenomenon that is developed without proof or systematic evidence. A combination of stereotyped beliefs and negative attitudes, so that prejudiced individuals think about people in a predetermined, usually negative way

Discrimination

Positive meaning "the process of distinguishing between two objects, ideas, situations, or stimuli. However, in group relations, it is "The prejudgement and negative treatment of people based on identifiable characteristics such as race, gender, religion, or ethnicity. Involves physical actions, unequal treatment of people because they belong to a category

Oppression

The social act of placing severe restrictions on a group or institution. The unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power

Stereotypes

Preconcieved and relatively fixed ideas about an individual, group, or social status

Minority

A group, or a member of a group, of people of a distinct racial, religious, ethnic, or political identity that is smaller or less powerful than the community's controlling group.

Institutional Racism

Refers to the discriminatory acts and policies against a racial group that pervade the major macro systems of society, including the legal, political, economic, and educational systems. "Those policies, practices, or procedures embedded in bureaucratic structures that systematically lead to unequal outcomes for people of color."

Individual Racism

The negative attitudes one person has about all members of a racial or ethnic group, often resulting in overt acts such as name-calling, social exclusion, or violence

Projection

A psychological defense mechanism in which one attributes to others characteristics that one is unwilling to recognize in oneself

Authoritarian Personality

Inflexible and rigid and has a low tolerance for uncertainty. This type of personality has a great respect for authority figures and quickly submits to their will

Self-Concept

The positive and negative thoughts and feelings that one has toward oneself

Afrocentric Perspective

Acknowledges African culture and expressions of African beliefs, values, institutions, and behaviors. It recognizes that African Americans have retained to some degree a number of elements of African life and values

Worldview

Involves one's perceptions of oneself in relation to other people, objects, institutions, and nature.

Politics of creative disorder

Type of activism based on the concept of nonviolent resistance. Operates on the edge of the dominant social system and includes school boycotts, rent strikes, job blockades, sit-ins, public marches, and product boycotts

Politics of disorder

reflects alienation from the dominant culture and disillusionment with the political system. Those being discriminated against resort to mob uprisings, riots, and other forms of violence

Politics of escape

engages in rhetoric about minority victimization; provides an emotional release

Affirmative action programs

requires that employers demonstrate that they are actively employing minority applicants

Reverse Discrimination

When qualified majority group members are sometimes arbitrarily excluded

Machismo

a strong sense of masculine pride. It is demonstrated differently by different people

Familism

The belief that the family takes precedence over the individual

Anglo-conformity

Assumes the desirability of maintaining modified English institutions, language, and culture as the dominant standard in American life

The Melting Pot

Views the future American society not as a modified England but rther as a totally new blend, both culturally and biologically, of all the various groups that inhabit the United States

Cultural Pluralism

Implies a series of coexisting groups, each preserving its own tradition and culture but each loyal to an overarching American nation.

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