DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis

31 terms by karin_johnson 

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Review these terms from our DNA unit.

Amino Acid

Carried by tRNA molecules ("trucks"). A long chain of these makes a protein.

Anticodon

Found on a tRNA ("truck"). These are the OPPOSITE letters from the codon on the mRNA.

Codon

Three letters on the mRNA that code for one amino acid.

Deoxyribose

The 5-sided sugar found in DNA.

Ribose

The 5-sided sugar found in RNA.

DNA Polymerase

The enzyme that copies BOTH sides of the DNA during DNA replication.

Genetic Code

The table of codons (3 letters on an mRNA molecule) that indicates which codons code for which amino acids.

Helicase

The enzyme that untwists DNA for replication or transcription.

Leading Strand

The strand of DNA that is replicated continuously by DNA polymerase.

Lagging Strand

The strand of DNA that is replicated by DNA polymerase in short sections called Okazaki fragments which are then joined by ligase.

Ligase

The enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand to create a continuous strand of replicated DNA.

mRNA

The molecule that carries messages from the DNA to the ribosome about how to build a protein.

Nitrogen Bases

The "steps" of a DNA ladder. They include A, T, C & G. (U in place of T for RNA...)

Nucleotide

Contains a phosphate, a nitrogen base (A, T (U), C, G) and a sugar (deoxyribose or ribose). Use for DNA replication or transcription (RNA formation).

Okazaki Fragments

Short pieces of DNA formed by DNA polymerases on the lagging strand of DNA during replication.

Protein

Long chain of amino acids.

Replication

The copying of DNA for cell division. (Going from a monovalent to a bivalent chromosome.)

Replication Fork

The "Y"-shape that occurs as helicase untwists and unzips DNA during replication.

Ribosome

Where mRNA and tRNA ("trucks") come together to build a protein.

RNA Polymerase

The enzyme that copies ONE side of the DNA to make a strand of RNA.

Start Codon

The first codon on all mRNA molecules: AUG.

Transcription

Making a strand of RNA.

Translation

Building a protein at a ribosome.

tRNA

"Trucks" that carry amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein. Contain the ANTI-codon.

Uracil

The nitrogen base found only in RNA. Replaces the T found in DNA.

Watson and Crick

The scientists credited with discovering the double helix shape of a DNA molecule.

Allolactose (Lactose)

The inducer molecule for the Lac Operon that causes the repressor (the roadblock) to fall off the DNA.

Lac Operon

A series of genes in an E.Coli bacteria that code for proteins that digest lactose. These genes can be turned on or off.

Operator

The place on the Lac Operon where the repressor (the roadblock) sits and prevents RNA polymerase from continuing. (A.k.a. The On/Off Switch)

Repressor

The roadblock for genes that can be turned on/off like the Lac Operon. The repressor sits on the Operator.

Structural Gene

Any gene that codes for a protein. The Lac Operon has 3 genes that code for the proteins/enzymes that digest lactose

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