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Midterm 1

Onychogryphosis

rams horn nails (curves up and can dig into the skin)

Onychatrophia

atrophy of the nail (nails flake off, think systemic disease)

Onychauxic

hypertrophy of the nail (thick)

Onychia

inflammation of nail matrix (specifically the proximal nail fold, NOT the sides of the nail)

Paronychia

inflammation of the nail folds (often associated with ingrown toenail)

Onychoclasis

breaking of the nail (trauma)

Onycholysis

separation of the nail from nail bed; occurrs from distal to proximal

Onychomadesis

separation of the nail from proximal to distal

Onychoschizia

splitting or lamination of the nail into layers (flake)

Onychomalacia

softening of the nail

Onychomycosis

fungal nails

Pterygium

Overgrowth of cuticle
May be normal variant, lichen planus, dermatomyositis or scleroderma

Koilonychia

Spoon nail
Associated with Iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

Onychopunctata

Pitting of the nails
Associated with psoriasis, alopecia areata, lichen planus

Beau's Lines

horizontal depression across nail plate caused by transient nail growth arrest
Associated with stressful event: MI, PE, high fever

Lindsay's Nail (half and half nails)

distal half is pink or brown and sharply demarcated from proximal half which is dull and white. Obliterates the lunula
Associated with Liver disease and Uremia/azotemia

Mee's Lines

single transverse white band
Associated with arsenic poisoning

Muehrcke's nails

paired, narrow horizontal white bands, separated by normal color which remain immobile as the nail grows
Associated with hypoalbuminemia and Nephrotic syndrome

Red Lunula

associated with Right sided CHF

Hippocratic nails

clubbing of nails
Associated with cardiac disease, COPD, pulmonary disease or GI disease

Splinter hemorrhages

SBE and trichinosis

Telangiectatic proximal nail fold

proximal nail fold becomes tortuous and dilated
Associated with Connective tissue diseases (SLE, dermatomyositis)

Hangnai

periungal, filamentous epidermal spicule

Leukonychia

white spots within the nail due to chronic microtrauma

Onychocryptosis

ingrown toenail; nail plate grows into adjacent nail fold

Onychophosis

nail fold hypertrophy/hyperkeratosis
Usually secondary to ingrown nail or irritation
ex. Lister's corn

Subungal hematoma

damage to the nail plate (damage to nail bed, that you can see through the nail plate)
Fills potential space with hematoma (hemorrhage) (can squirt out)
Associated with simple and complex nail bed lacerations, open phalanx fractures
Should be drained if >25% of the visible nail plate or if nail plate is visibly unstable

Type 1 Nail Deformity

Acquired with NORMAL nail morphology
Ungual Labia Inflammation
Soft Tissue
Against nail plate
Reversible w/out Matrix Modification

Type 2 Nail Deformity

Acquired with ABNORMAL nail morphology
Acute Angulation
Not reversible
Require matrix modification
No ossesous involvement

Anonychia

absence of one or more nail plates (born this way)
Associated with ichythyosis (scaly fish type)

Polyonychia

extra or supernunerary nail plate on a single toe with 1 or more matrices (two nails, one digit)

Macronychia

abnormally large nail plate, otherwise normal appearance

Micronychia

anomalously small nail plate, otherwise normal appearance

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