the first part of problem solving, including three stages: intelligence, design and choice.
the first stage of decision making, in which potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined.
the second stage of decision making, in which alternative solutions to the problem are developed.
the third stage of decision making, which requires selecting a course of action.
a process that goes beyond decision making to include the implementation stage.
a stage of problem solving in which a solution is put into effect.
the final stage of the problem solving process, in which decision makers evaluate the implementation.
a decision made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method.
a decision that deals with unusual or exceptional situations
a process to find the best solution usually the one that will best help the organization meet its goal.
a model that will find a good- but not necessarily the best- problem solution.
commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution.
a report produced periodically, or on a schedule, such as daily, weekly, or monthly.
a summary of the previous day's critical activities; typically available at the beginning of each workday.
a report developed to give certain information at someone's request.
a report automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action.
a report providing increasingly detailed data about a situation.
an information system that provides financial information not only for executives but also for a broader set of people who need to make better decisions on a daily basis.
a department within an organization that focuses on generating profits
division within a company that generates sales or revenues.
a division within a company that does not directly generate revenue.
analyzing the financial condition of an organization and determining whether financial statements and reports produced by the financial MIS are accurate.
auditing performed by individuals within the organization.
auditing performed by an outside group.
Economic order quantity (EOQ)
the quantity that should be reordered to minimize total inventory costs.
Reorder point (ROP)
a critical inventory quantity that determines when to order more inventory.
Material Requirements planning (MRP)
a set of inventory-control techniques that help coordinate thousands of inventory items when the demand of one item is dependent on the demand of another.
Just-in-time (JIT) inventory
a philosophy management in which inventory and materials are delivered just before they are used in manufacturing a product.
Computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM)
a system that directly controls manufacturing equipment.
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
using computers to link the components of the production process into an effective system.
Flexible manufacturing system (FMS)
an approach that allows manufacturing facilities to rapidly and efficiently change from making one product to making another.
a process that ensures that the finished product meets the customer's needs.
an information system that supports managerial activities in product development, distribution, pricing decisions, and promotional effectiveness.
an information system that provides aggregate information on accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and many other applications.
Geographic information system (GIS)
a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographic information, that is, data identified according to its location.
Ad hoc DSS
a DSS concerned with situations or decisions that come up only a few times during the life of the organization
a DSS that handles situations or decisions that occur more than once, usually several times per year or more. An institutional DSS is used repeatedly and refined over the years.
Highly structured problems
problems that are straightforward and require known facts and relationships.
Semi-structured or unstructured problems
more complex problems in which the relationships among the pieces of data are not always clear, the data might be in a variety of formats, and the data is often difficult to manipulate or obtain.
a user interface that allows decision makers to easily access and manipulate the DSS and to use common business terms and phrases.
part of a DSS that provides decision makers access to a variety of models and assists them in decision-making.
Model management software
software that coordinates the use of models in a DSS.
Group support system (GSS)
software application that consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making; also called group decision support system or computerized collaborative work system.
a decision-making approach in which group decision makers are geographically dispersed; this approach encourages diversity among group members and fosters creativity and original thinking in decision making.
a decision-making approach that often consists of members offering ideas "off the top of their heads".
Group consensus approach
a decision-making approach that forces members in the group to reach a unanimous decision.
Nominal group technique
a decision-making approach that encourages feedback from individual group members, and the final decision is made by voting, similar to the way public officials are elected.
a room that supports decision making, with the decision makers in the same building, combining face-to-face verbal interaction with technology to make the meeting more effective and efficient.
teams of people located around the world working on common problems.
Executive Support System (ESS)
specialized DSS that includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization.
determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, predicting future trends, and projecting the development of new product lines.
Chief Knowledge officer (CKO)
a top-level executive who helps the organization use a KMS to create, store, and use knowledge to achieve organizational goals.
Artificial intelligence (AI)
the ability of computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain.
Artificial intelligence systems
people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence.
the ability to learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from experience, handle complex situations, solve problems when important information is mission, determine what is important, react quickly and correctly to a new situation, understand visual images, process and manipulate symbols, be creative and imaginative, and use heuristics.
a system that approximates the way a person sees, hears, and feels objects.
hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert.
mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are tedious or hazardous for humans.
the hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images.
Natural language processing
processing that allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a "natural" language, such as English.
a combination of software and hardware that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives.
a computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain.
an approach to solving large, complex problem in which a number of related operations or models change and evolve until the best one emerges.
and knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process or another program, also intelligent robot or bot.
a component of an expert system that stores all relevant information, data, rules, cases, and relationships used by the expert system.
a conditional statement that links conditions to actions or outcomes.
rules that suggest certain conclusions
part of the expert system that seeks information and relationships from the knowledge base and provides answers, predictions and suggestions similar to the way a human expert would.
the process of starting with conclusions and working backward to the supporting facts.
the process of starting with the facts and working forward to the conclusions.
component of an expert system that allows a user or decision maker to understand how the expert system arrived at certain conclusions or results.
Knowledge acquisition facility
part of the expert system that provides convenient and efficient means of capturing and storing all the components of the knowledge base.
area of knowledge addressed by the expert system.
the person or group who has the expertise or knowledge the expert system is trying to capture.
a person who has training or experience in design, development, implementation, and maintenance of an expert system.
the person or group who uses the benefits from the expert system.
Virtual reality system
a system that enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment.
the use of information systems to develop competitive systems to develop competitive strategies for people, organizations, or even countries.
a specialized system that combines traditional disciplines, such as science and medicine, with computer systems and technology.